Saturday, June 30, 2012

too much pleasure and enjoyment

"All the people I send into Kashmir turn out haramzada; there is too much pleasure and enjoyment in that country"

~ Maharaja Ranjit Singh to Sir Alexander Burnes of the East India Company.
Came across it in 'The Abode of Snow: Observations on a journey from Chinese Tibet to the Indian Caucasus, through the upper valleys of the Himalaya' by Andrew Wilson (1875) .

Sunday, June 24, 2012

Mad sons of Freud on Er. Suyya

The kind of hacks Freud spawned. Yet, Freud's impact on people and their way of interpreting stories, written and oral, can't be ignored. 

Here is 'A Birth of the Hero Myth from Kashmir' by Captian M. R.C. Macwatters (based at Lucknow) in International Journal of Psycho-Analysis. Volume II, Sept-Dec 1921. [via]:

The Valley of Kashmir is a wide alluvial plain which to this day is liable to disastrous floods because at its outlet the main river escapes through a narrow gorge which obstructs the escape of any considerable accumulation of water. In fact the whole valley is almost as dependent as Holland on its drainage and other engineering works.
The first serious attempt to protect it by dams and drainage operations was made by Suyya in the ninth century and an account of his exploits is given by a historian named Kalhana who wrote three centuries later. Although much of his story appears to be historical, the account of Suyya's origin is a typical birth-myth, which utilizes a part of his engineering exploits for its symbolic expression. Kalhana recounts how such protective works as already existed had been neglected by a series of kings until the reign of Avantivamam and how famine had come upon the land in consequence. He then proceeds as follows: 
Chapter V, Paragraph 72. Then through the merits of Avantivamam there descended to earth the Lord of Food himself, the illustrious Suyya to give fresh life to the people. 
73. The origin of the wise man was not known, and his deeds which deeds which made the world wonder proved that though [he appeared] in the fourth period (Yuga) he was not bom from a [woman's] womb
74. Once a Candala woman, Suyya by name, found when sweeping up a dust heap on the road a fresh earthen vessel fitted with a cover. 
75. Raising the cover she saw lying in it a baby, which had eyes like two lotus leaves and was sucking his fingers. 
76. 'Some unfortunate woman must have exposed this lovely boy' Thus she thought in her mind, and then from tenderness her breasts gave milk. 
77. Without defiling the child with her touch she arranged for his keep in the house of a Sudra-nurse and brought him up. 
78. Taking the name of Suyya he grew into an intelligent [youth] and having learned his letters became a teacher of small boys in the house of some householder. 
79. As he endeared himself to the virttious by observances in regard to fasts, bathing and the like, and showed a brilliant intellect, men of sense kept around him in assemblies. 
80. When these were complaining in their conversation of the flood calamity he said 'I have got the knowledge [for preventing it] but what can I do without means?' 
81. When the King heard through spies that he was saying these words persistently, as if he were deranged In his mind, he was surprised. 
82. The King had him brought up and questioned him about this saying. He calmly replied also in the royal presence 'I have got the knowledge.' 
83. Thereupon the Lord of the Earth, though his courtiers declared him (Suyya) crazy, was anxious to test that knowledge and placed his own treasures at his disposal. 
84. He took many pots full of money (dinnara) from the treasury and embarking on a boat proceeded in haste to Madavarajya. 
85. After dropping there a pot full of money at a village called Nandaka which was submerged in the flood he hurriedly turned back. 
86. Though the councillors said 'that Suyya is surely only a madman' the King when he heard this account became interested in watching the end of these proceedings. 
87. On reaching in Kramajya the locality called Yaksadara he threw with both hands money (dinnara) into the water. 
88. 89. There where the rocks which had rolled down from the mountains lining both river banks had compressed the Vitasta and made its waters turn backwards the famine stricken villagers then searched for the money, dragged out the rocks from the river, and thus cleared the [bed of the] Vitasta. 
90. After he had in this manner artfully drained off that water for two or three days, he had the Vitasta dammed up in one place by workmen. 
91. The whole river which Nila produced was blocked up by Suyya for seven days by the construction of a stone dam — a wonderful work. 
92. After having the river bed cleared at the bottom and stone walls constructed to protect it against rocks which might roll down he removed the dam. 
93. Then the stream flowing to the ocean set out on its course in haste as if eagerly longing for the sea after its detention. 
94. When the water left it the land was covered with mud and with wriggling fishes and thus resembled the [night] sky which when free from clouds displays black darkness and the stars. 
96. The river with its numerous great channels branching off from the original channel appeared like a black female serpent which has numerous hoods resting on one body. 
Following the example of Otto Rank in 'The Myth of the Birth of the Hero' those points which are common to many such myths are printed in italics. Their analysis has been fully worked out by him and need not be dealt with here, but several features of the present story are worthy of mention. 
We may infer that the hero's real father is the King. It is true that the phrase which attributes his origin to the merits of the King is a common expression in the flattery of oriental courtiers who attribute all fortunate events to the auspiciousness of their ruler, but we may interpret it as an implication of parenthood also, especially as the scene in which the King receives and welcomes him is very reminiscent of the scenes of reconciliation in other hero-myths. The hostility between father and son is not obvious but is perhaps hinted at in the neglect, not of the King but of his predecessors, and in the activity of his spies. The hostility of the courtiers must surely stand for the hostility between the hero and his brothers. Several points in the story show reduplication, for example he is found in a pot and embarks in a boat upon the water, these symbolising the same idea, and the first foster mother, like Pharoah's daughter, hands him over to a second. 
We see the expression of a number of childhood fantasies in the tale. The hero boasts insistently 'I have the knowledge' and that even in the presence of the King (father). Just so would the child like to be able to boast of sex-knowledge even to his father but cannot, and even when he has the knowledge he lacks 'the means'. Whereas in some fantasies it is the father who denies knowledge and power to the son, here the father encourages the one and provides the other (wish-fulfillment). Sir Aurel Stein's notes on the word 'dinnara' here used for money are interesting. A dinnara is a unit of value so small that it was more likely a cowrie than a metal coin (and lends itself therefore to identification with seed) while the ideas of money and grain are largely interchangeable since payments were more often made in grain than in coin even up to recent times in Kashmir. 
The 'infantile theory' of generation from faeces comes to expression through the dust heap where he is found and through the mud which covered the land and swarmed with wriggling fishes. 
We find also an expression of the common fantasy of being one's own father. The Hero engages in certain interesting operations at the outlet of the valley where he scatters money (or seed), as a result of which there is an accumulation of the waters for seven days, or if we allow ourselves to add the two or three days mentioned in verse 90, a total period of 9 or 10 days corresponding to the 9 months or 10 moons of pregnancy, and he achieves this result by the erection of a dam whose solidity the' story emphasises, 'a wonderful work' indeed! In the opening sentence we are told that he 'came to give life' which he does by fertilising Kashmir, his mother-land. 


Friday, June 22, 2012

Some Stats

More than 500 people like the Facebook page of this blog nowThe blog has close to 400 readers. Most of them read the blog via email. More than half of them are Kashmiri Muslims. More than 1000 people reach the blog every day. Around 3% of them are using smart phones. With 3.4 % Srinagar is at No. 4 in list of cities where it is read. People download around 500 images from the blog everyday. I get 2-3 emails and 2 -3 comments per week. Most of the emails are from older generation. And comments are from relatively younger generation. Really young (at least in case of KPs) not looking for any of it. On last count (shared by concerned readers ) there are around 2-3 pages on Facebook (with thousands of 'like' ) that rely on this blog for their vintage content soup. 

And despite what stats might say. This blog actually runs on women power.

Thursday, June 21, 2012

Kashmir Illustrations, 1859

From 'Journals kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal' (1887) by Sir Richard Temple (1826-1902).

Kadal bridge over the Jhelum ar Bijbihara
1/3 of a Panoramic image

Ruins of Martand

Tuesday, June 19, 2012

Vintage Kashmir in National Geographic Magazine

In 1927,  a year after his wife died, Franklin Price Knott (1854-1930at the age of 73 embarked on a 40,000-mile tour of Japan, China, the Philippines, Bali, and India during which he took a lot of photographs using a then recently developed technique of creating color photographs - autochrome. These  vivid images of his travels created a sensation in America. Franklin Price Knott was one of the first to have his color images appear in National Geographic magazine. 

Today Franklin Price Knott is credited as one of the pioneers of color photography, for giving public an appetite for color and in developing this appetite, Kashmir played a vital role as the scenes colored by him for Kashmir are believed to be his best work.

Franklin Price Knott's Kashmir was printed in October 1929 issue of National Geographic Magazine.

Here are some of those famed photographs (via

Kashmiri Girl


A boy awaits the arrival of the Viceroy and Lady Irwin with flowers. Jammu (not Kashmir).

Native state officials float downriver to meet the Maharaj. Srinagar.

The above two images illustrate how these first ''color' photographs were created

Students of a school [C.M.S] gather outside for photo. Srinagar.

"The Maharaja summoned me to the green and blue tiled pool in the royal palace at Jammu where he was bathing with a dozen natives diving and splashing. After the swim servants brought to him tray after tray of exquisite jewelry; pins, necklaces, rings and bracelets. From some trays he would select a piece and wave the rest away. When I finally photographed him with his aides, he was wearing, I was told $4,000,000 worth of pearls. 
It is regrettable that in this Vale of Kashmir surrounded by glitterng ice-capped mountains and considered the world's most beautiful valley, there are almost no womeen except those of the laboring classes, to be seen. It is contrary to social custom for women of the better classes to be seen on the streets or in public places."

~ an American news report from 1927 of Franklin Price Knott's trip to Kashmir.


Here are some other photographs of Kashmir published in National Geographic over the years (minus the more recent ones). Their site offers no information on year of the photograph. So here I have added  some additional notes. Now Rewind.


Sunday, June 17, 2012

steel bartanwalli

Woman Who Barters Stainless Steel Utensils For Old Worn Clothes

Saturday, June 16, 2012

thought for ancient food

Fish prepared with oil and salt,
ginger, pepper, pomegranate peel,
with walnuts garnished, touched with saffron,
and served on a bed of cool, white rice:
the doer of this act of merit
is bound to go to paradise.

~ Ratnabhuti, only name of this Sanskrit poet is known

In this chilly winter time,
may your cooking pots be full
with paste of lotus stem and root,
bright and smooth as elephant tusk,
with fritters rich in pepper,
and pieces of the shakuni fowl.

~ Bhatta Vriddhi, again only name

Came across these in 'Subhashitavali: An Anthology of Comic, Erotic and Other Verse', translated from the Sanskrit Subhashitavali of Vallabhadeva (fifteenth-century CE, Kashmir ) by A. N. D. Haksar.

Purchase link:
Buy Subhashitavali from

Man from Kishtwar

Sunny works as a help at weddings. At Jammu.

For sometime he worked as a help at a Kashmiri Bakery at Habba Kadal too.
Back then he had a girlfriend back in his hometown. Kishtwar.

A place in olden days renowned for women who could turn men into mad lovers and mad lovers into mad birds.

'I broke free while I still had time. Ran away. To Kashmir.'

He is now married to some other girl still in Kishtwar. And all of twenty-six, he has a kid daughter too.

At night he cries like a child while talking to his wife on the phone. Sometimes he does wish he was a bird who could fly.


Friday, June 15, 2012

Bollywood Koshur Rhymes

Ya pir madat kar
Dast gir madat kar
Haya ho
Hya ho
Allah mera badshah
Molla mera badshah

Haya ho
Hya ho

From Ek thi Ladki (1949), one of the earliest visit to Kashmir by Indian Cinema. [Came across it thanks to an awesome Kashmir Song compilation by dustedoff]

The boatmen in the song can be heard chanting 'Ya peer Dastgir', which is like the traditional chant for Kashmiri boatmen and the muslim working class. Also, the probable reason why we see more than two men rowing those boats is that around that time regattas organised on Jhelum river and Dal Lake by Christian Missionary School were an important  part of the Srinagar experience.

Koshur British Rhymes: "There is indeed a "nursery rhyme thrill", a certain Hickery-Dickery-Dock patter of rhythm, which anyone can hear (as Aldous Huxley heard it) any time, of day, in the streets of Kashmir..."

Kashmir, past and present, 1903

From 'India, past and present' (1903) by C. H. Forbes-Lindsay. Photographer: uncredited.

Girls of Kashmir
The above one is in fact 'Natch Girls, albumen print by Francis Frith from 1870s' (previously posted under Witches of Kashmir). Also, check out the comment section on Nautch Girls of Kashmir for a recent interesting conversation on Devdasis, Hafizas and women dancing.

Panorama of Kashmir
The book offers no clue about the location captured. It is obviously a bagh. I believe it is the Nishat bagh. It seems to have been taken from its highest pavallion. The 'lake' in the background is a bit confusing, it looks like a crop field. I believe it is Dal in flood time.

Wednesday, June 13, 2012

Mother sits by the side of
Jheeli Dal

Even as her grandchildren,
children, their wives

and even her old husband
now float on Jheeli Dal
like little yellow ducks
in a pitless bath tub

is still

counting the sound
her bones now make
as she sits by the side of 

Jheeli Dal

Never in her life has she been on a Shikara
or on anything afloat

She keeps to an ancient pledge,

'Not for us. It is not meant for us.'

A son soon joins her company.
'It is too hot anyway!'

Mother and son now sit side by side
by the side of
Dal Lake
On boulevard road
under one of those signature street lamps.

'Mother, look mother, look,'
a man from Pattan approaches them.
A crowd gathers in response to the call.
'Moji, wuch,'
he says as he takes off his khan dress
and turns his bare back
to an embarrassed and shocked old woman

'Look mother, look, what they did to me!'

There are burn marks,
there are what were once wounds
of flesh and blood
She sees the maps,
She sees islands,
She sees lakes,
She sees roads,
She sees men,
on move
She sees countries,
She sees continents,
She sees the world.
She sees me.

'You remember when you where young, and in summers you used to run around shirtless.
And I used to tease you: you shirtless zyinmohnyu, you shirtless woodcutter, please cover up, go get a shirt.'


Photos by an American woman doctor in Kashmir, 1913

From 'Jungle days; being the experiences of an American woman doctor in India' (1913) by Dr. Arley Munson.

Kashmiri women.
Picket Fences. Kashmiri Picket Fences.
 Rest of the vigenettes captured in this photograph are standard 'pose and shoot' for its era.

Snake charmers and jugglers.
The book offers no details on this intriguing image, But is sequentially placed in the Kashmir section.

Swing bridge Kashmir
No details given in the book but the place is probably Hattian


Tuesday, June 12, 2012

Kashmir pictures, drawn with pen and pencil

From 'Indian pictures, drawn with pen and pencil' (1881) by William Urwick (1826-1905)

Floating  Gardens. Dal Lake, Srinagar.
 A description of how these floating gardens were created, from G.T. Vigne's 'Travels in Kashmir, Ladak, Iskardo, the countries adjoining the mountain-course of the Indus, and the Himalaya, north of the Panjab' (1842):

"We now enter the division of the lake called Kutawal; it is chiefly around this that the far-famed floating gardens of Kashmir are anchored, or rather pinned to the ground by means of a stake. These, however, are very un-Lallah-Rookhish in their appearance, not being distinguishable from beds of reeds and rushes. Their construction is extremely simple, and they are made long and narrow, that they may be the more easily taken in tow. A floating garden ten yards long' by two or three in width, maybe purchased for a rupee.

Mr. Moorcroft has well described the manner in which these gardens are made. The weeds at the bottom, cut by means of a scythe, rise and float on the surface; these are matted together, secured, and strewed with soil and manure; a protecting fence of rushes is allowed to spring up around them; — and upon this platform a number of conical mounds or heaps of weeds are constructed, about two feet in height. On the tops of these is placed some soil from the bottom of the lake; the melon and cucumber plants are laid upon it; and no further care is necessary."

Shop Bridge. Srinagur. Kashmir.

Monday, June 11, 2012

Kashmir Illustrations, 1854

Illustrations from  'Church Missionary Intelligencer' (1854), a book that among other things has an account of a bunch of Christian missionaries in Kashmir getting chased around by Muslim mobs and getting asked 'trick' questions by a Pandit.

Baramulla on the Jailum, Kashmir
The geography of this place has been messing with my mind. Previously, I believed that the hillock in the background was misplaced, a figment of western imagination that mixed up Srinagar and Baramulla. It turns out that the composition of illustration is in all probability correct. The doubt created  my native imagination. This is Sumbul Bridge in Baramulla ( and the hillock is probably Aha Teng ?)

Bridge at Srinagur
Shah Hamadan

Rise of Native Judge Sambhunath Pandit

"Oh! my brother Musalmans! I again remind you that you have ruled nations, and have for centuries held different countries in your grasp. For seven hundred years in India you have had Imperial sway. You know what it is to rule. Be not unjust to that nation which is ruling over you. And think also on this, how upright is her rule. Of such benevolence as the English Government shows to the foreign nations under her there is no example in the history of the world. See what freedom she has given in her laws, and how careful she is to protect the rights of her subjects. she has not been backward in promoting the progress of the natives of India, and is throwing open to them high appointments. At the commencement of her rule, except clerkships and kaziships, there was nothing. The kazis of the pergunah, who were called commissioners, decided small civil suits, and received very small pay. Up to 1832 or 1833 this state of things lasted. If my memory is not wrong, it was in the time of Lord William Bentck that natives of India began to get honourable posts. The positions of Munsiff, Subordinate Judge, and Deputy Collector on respectable pay were given to natives, and progress has been steadily going on ever since. In the Calcutta High Court, a Kashmiri Pandit was first appointed equal to the English Judges. at this time there are, perhaps,  three Bengalis in the Calcutta High Court, and in the same way some Hindus in Bombay and Madras. It was your bad fortune that there was for a long time no Mahomedan High Court Judge, but now there is one the Allahabad High Court."

~ India by Sir John Strachey (1888).

Sambhunath Pandit was the first Indian Judge of the High Court of Judicature at Fort William. His wikipedia entry would tell you nothing about the way his rise was advertised by the Empire.

Here's the entry against his name from 'Dictionary of Indian Biography' (1901) by C. E. Buckland:


A Kashmir Brahman, whose family had settled in Oudh, and a branch had been settled in Bengal for some generations : son of Sadasib Pandit : born in Calcutta, 1820 : educated at Lucknow, Benares, and the Oriental Seminary : beginningas an assistant to the Sadr Court Record-keeper on Rs. 20 a month, he rose, from being a Pleader, to be Junior Government Pleader, 18 3 : Senior, 1861 : Law Professor at the Presidency College, 1855 :and the first Native Judge of the High Court, Calcutta, 1863-7 : died June 6,1867 : an authority on Hindu law, and questions of land tenure.

I am not coming up with these funny stories. I am not even challenged to apply my imagination here. These stories have all been already written. There is a street in Calcutta named after this man. Kashmiris visiting the city may want to check it out next time they visit that part of the world. And right now I can't think of a street in Srinagar named after a Pandit.


Entering Srinagar, 1935

"We had, as usual, only the very vaguest idea of what Srinagar was going to be like. We knew that it was often referred to, in the tourist world, as 'the Venice of the East', and we knew the name of the principal hotel. 'Very decent sort of place,' everyone had said; 'they'll make you comfortable there.' We imagined a small dining-room where half a dozen officers on leave propped Punch against the cruet.
Presently we struck the main road, metalled and straight. Notices in English flicked past in the headlights. 'Srinagar' said the driver, waving his hand towards the suddenly constellated darkness ahead of us; and soon we honked into crowded streets. 'Escape Me Never' said a hoarding, speaking aptly enough for civilization; the names of Bergner and of Beery figured largely. Srinagar was much bigger than we had imagined it.
So was the hotel. Its imposing portals loomed up and abashed us. Painfully conscious of uncouthness, of dusty clothes and blackened faces, we entered almost surreptitiously; and saw at once that we had chosen a bad moment to do so. People were gathering in the lounge for dinner. Alas for out vision of the little dining-room. the Punches propped informally! Everyone was in evening dress. Anglo-India, starched and glossy, stared at us with horror and disgust. A stage clergyman with an Oxford voice started as though he had seen the devil. A hush, through which on all sides could be heard the fell epithet 'jungly,' descended on the assembled guests. We were back in Civilization."

~ News from Tartary: A Journey from Peking to Kashmir (1936) by Peter Fleming. For those who don't know Peter Fleming was the younger brother of famous Ian Fleming of James Bond fame.


Saturday, June 9, 2012

Kashmir life sketches, 1881

From 'The diary of a civilian's wife in India' by Augusta E. King 1877-1882 (1884), Volume 2. Year of the visit is probably 1881 based on the chronology on dates given in the book. 

Thursday, June 7, 2012

Pictorial tour round Kashmir, 1906

From 'Pictorial tour round India' (1906) by John Murdoch (1819-1904).

Mosque of Shah Hamadan/Kali Mandar, Srinagar

Baramula on the Jhelum
(with an out of place Shankracharya hill of Srinagar in the background)
Update: The hillock  may not be entirely out of place
Photograph of Baramulla Bridge from Vignettes of Kashmir (1903) by E.G. Hull
More about the bridge here
It seems that the hillock was certainly there. One can even notice the pathway going up it. Was there a shrine up there? Meanwhile here is another view of the bridge at Sumbal. Is that Aha-teng hillock? 

'The Viceroy's tour in Kashmir - The procession of boats with his excellency nearing the Sumbul Bridge (Sumbal in Baramulla district) on the way to Srinagar'
-The Graphic. 18th December, 1891. 

Tuesday, June 5, 2012

a feast in Jammu for the Prince of Wales, 1905

Feeding the Poor at Jammu. 1905
"At the appointed time the beggars gathered from far and near, on a spot surrounded by a cordon of regular troops and police, and divided into five separate blocks allotted to three following interesting classes of people in order of spiritual precedence: Hindus, Mahomedans, other castes, cripples, and sweepers. For the inhabitants of this land would rather starve in proud isolation than eat together.

At three o'clock in the afternoon began the feeding proceedings, and so earnest were they that a force of 250 military sepoys and police-constables had to be told off to keep the peace among the banqueters; but even these ministers of order had to be drawn from both the great castes, for a Hindu policeman could not interfere with a recalcitrant Mahomedan beggar in his dinner, nor would a Hindu beggar tolerate the contact of a Mahomedan constable. Thus they ate voraciously, and then washed the viands down with copious draughts from the Jogi Gate Canal, carried in skins of water-carriers of both sects. No fewer than 187 maunds of sweetmeats were that afternoon consumed in honour of the Prince of Wales. "

From 'Through India with the Prince' (1906) by George Frederick Abbott.

Monday, June 4, 2012

The land of regrets, 1903

"The Maharajah does not encourage building, and upon wisdom is his objection founded. Srinagar is subject to floods but apart from this, houseboat life is far preferable. Anything else is out of place in this Asiatic Venice. A flood of a most disastrous nature, the year preceding my visit, was still a pet theme of conversation. Srinagar was quite lost to sight for the time being, even the tallest trees were submerged. Queer tales were told of a piano and furniture generally floating on the surface of the waters, and of the chaos and confusion existing when the waters subsided. Fortunately the loss of life was small ; the inhabitants had sufficient warning to find safety in boats.

In the carpet factories, one of Kashmir's greatest industries, fears were entertained for their safety, but when the waters subsided it was found little harm had been done, and that carpets, sub- merged for weeks, came out uninjured. Mr. Mitchel, perhaps the largest of manufacturers there, told me that he attributed the durability of these dyes solely to the peculiarity of the water with which they were blended. 

A visit to his factory included a lesson in carpet- making, and was most interesting. Boys from six years and upwards, and men and women were engaged in the work, and so mechanical was it that the actual workers knew nothing really of the beautiful patterns they were weaving ! These were read out to them, as they sat in front of the great screen on which was fixed the foundation string work of the carpet on which the designs were worked. These patterns, on which we tread so heedlessly, were worked out as carefully as Berlin wool church work " four white, lift six, seven black, three blue, eight green, lift four," and so on, the reader monotoned, and for one wrong stitch to cause a flaw in the design, without hesitation was the work stopped and undone. 

This factory was the scene of one of the quaint incidents caused by the floods of 1903. When the waters subsided, one of the owner's houseboats was found stranded on top of his bungalow ! History doth not relate how it was dislodged from its inconvenient perch. Such excitements are not likely to occur in Kashmir again. A flood spill channel has been constructed, a mile above Srinagar, and should there be an overflow, owing to excessive rain or the bursting of boundaries after severe frost, the surplus, it has been proved, will effectually be carried off to the Woolar Lake."

From 'The land of regrets: a Miss Sahib's reminiscences' (1909) by Isabel Fraser Hunter, who visited valley in 1904 . The book mostly has India but for a brief de-tour to 'Asiatic Venice'.

Sunday, June 3, 2012

popular views of the Jummoo and Kashmir territories, 1877

From 'The northern barrier of India: A popular account of the Jummoo and Kashmir territories' (1877) by Frederic Drew.

K2,28,265 feet; as seen from Turmik

A Dogra Soldier

Akhnoor Fort, on the Chenab

City of Srinagar. From a photograph by Francis Frith

mapping of The Ancient Geography Of Kasmir

Man Mohan Munshi Ji sends me Maps compiled in 1895-8 by Stein for Rajatarangini. The maps were also included in his work 'Ancient Geography of Kashmir' (1899).

Stein's map of anicent Srinagar

Stein's 1898 map showing the Sindh-Jhelum confluence near Trigrami 


More information about Stein's Maps and a whole bunch of maps here at :

Details of the story of these maps here at:


Mohan Munshi Ji also shares his map of 'Ancient concepts of Kashmir Mountains'


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