Thursday, August 29, 2013

when we meet and how we meet

Train may baithe do Kaashmiri

Train may baithe do Kaashmiri
Raat Bhar 'Hata Warai !Hata Warai!'

Howay Howay

Two Kashmiri meet in a train
and for the entire night
the train
rings with shouts of :
'How are you? Are you fine?'

~ lines from a funny multi-lingual Kashmiri song sung at weddings about people of different races meeting each other in a train.


ays che wodwin jaanawaar

We are flying animals

~ line from a Kashmiri song.

Wednesday, August 28, 2013

lyrics, trs., notes: Harmukh Bar Tal

An interesting case of a popular Kashmiri love song. Harmukh Bar Tal, popular as a Bhajan among Pandit and the same song is popular as a love song among Kashmiri Muslims. Of course, as is often the case in Kashmir, it is so popular that no one remembers the original writer and the meaning of the lines is not give and assumed to be understood. I hope people realize something even as simple as giving translations along with the original lines along with a Youtube video  goes a long way in keeping a language alive. The are people doing it for Urdu and even Hindi online. But, Kashmiris would just sit and talk about 'dying culture'.

Anyway, back to the song. There are a couple of versions of the song available (all with same tune).

First version is a Pandit one by Rajinder Kachroo. Second version is by Shameema Dev and third one is a more recent production (singer not give!) presented as a Hafiz Nagma. Based on who is singing, some words change. Praraey become Zaagaey, both meaning wait. Yee become Tee both meaning that. Posh (Flower), Golab (Rose), Shaeyri (Lavender) move around interchanging-ly. Two (completing) extra line coming in from Shameema Dev's version. Personally, based on what I hear, I find Zaagaey, Tee, replacement of Posh with Shaeri (which in turn gets to compete with Golab) etc. really interesting.

Based on all the three versions, here's what I could make of the love song. A transliteration (done in an hour, someone with more knowledge of the language could have done it in five): 

Harmukh bar tal praraey (zaagaey) Madano
I will wait at the gates of Harmukh, for you my love

Yee Dapham tee (yee) laagyoo
What ever you ask, I will offer

Posh (shaeyri) dapham 
Ask for flower (Lavander)

Golab (shaeyri) laagaey Madano

I will offer Rose (Lavander), my love

Yee Dapham tee laagyoo
What ever you ask, I will offer

Phambas ti Naaras mil goom
My Yarn and Spindle, all entangled 
Cotton and Fire are now one

Valla tche path dil goom
Oh, God!, My heart is stuck on you

Be'no ye dooryer tchalay Madano
I can't take this distance anymore

Ye dapham ti lagayo
What ever you ask, I will offer

Kabeel'e Drayas Pranaey
I left my old tribe, my people

Kya osum Deklanay
What was the push?

Be'no ye dooryer tchalay Madano*
I can't take this distance anymore

Harmukh bar tal  praraey Madano
I will wait at the gates of Harmukh, for you my love

Yee Dapham tee laagyoo
What ever you ask, I will offer

Kongas karmay chamayee
In am tilling in saffron fields

Maenz ho lagith naman
Henna still fresh on my nails

Mushtakh goham kaman Madano
Yearning, for whom, my love

Yee Dapham tee laagyoo
What ever you ask, I will offer

Yaawan myaanay Thazro
My youth is at its zenith

T'chekor dejyo Nazro
Where are your eyes lost?

Kaaei we'tce hung Zazoor Madano**
It is wracked, blotched and decaying, my love

Yee Dapham tee laagyoo
What ever you ask, I will offer

The imagery that the song creates in a Pandit mind is that of Parvati at the foot of Harmukh singing out a love song to Shiva who is still mourning for Sati.


** Found the meaning of 'hung' in that beautiful line thanks to work of George Abraham Grierson Sahib.
* In Rasul Mir's 'Bal Marayo' we find an identical line that goes like this: Butino Ye Doorer Choon Zaray, Bal Marayo

Fakirs and Cave of Manasbal

Fakirs and Cave of Manasbal. Bourne. 1860s.

Tuesday, August 27, 2013

Kashmiri Shawl in European Paintings

Marquise de Sorcy de Thelusson, Portrait in 1790 by Jacques Louis David
The portrait of Marquise de Sorcy de Thelusson by Jacques Louis David is considered the first appearance of Kashmiri Shawl on European canvas.

Madame Philibert Riviere by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, 1806
L'Imperatrice Josephine (1809) by Antoine -Jean Gros (Musee Massena)
The famous story of Kashmiri shawls arriving in Europe goes like this:

In around 1796, in the time of Abdulla Khan, an Afghan Governor of Kashmir, a blind man named Sayyid Yahyah came to Kashmir from Bhagdad, and left with a orange Shawl as a gift from the governor. The Sayyid then went to Egypt, and gave it to the Khedive (Ruler) there. When Napoleon arrived in Egypt, Khedive gave the same shawl as present to him. In turn, Napoleon on reaching back France gave it to Josephine. It was Josephine who made it, a Shawl worn in the subcontinent by men, a rich fashion statement for women.

Will You go out with me, Fido?, by Alfred Stevens, 1859

Madame Louis Joachim Gaudibert by Claude Monet, 1868

Based on some of the names and a sequence given in 'Flowers, Dragons and Pine Trees: Asian Textiles in the Spencer Museum of Art'  by Mary M. Dusenbur.


Booyn G'off

Cave inside Chenar Tree. By a British Army Officer, around 1907.
[via: bonham]
In Abul Fazal's Akbarnama there is an episode in which during a storm, Akbar and 34 of his men take shelter inside the hollowed trunk of an aged Chinar tree. In ‘Tuzk-i-Jehangiri’, returing to the same episode, Jehangir recounts that he too took shelter in a cave inside a Chinar tree that time, he along with five or seven of his horsemen and with their horses.


The world is indeed getting smaller.

Jamavar Shawl and Monet

A Guest post by Komal Kaul on discovering a bit of Kashmir in an art exhibit in Chicago.

I recently went to the Chicago Art Institute , where they had a special exhibit on Impressionism , Fashion and Mordern Art. One of the paintings ( actually a loaner from Met Museum of Art NY) was this:

Madame Louis Joachim Gaudibert, 1868

The lady in the paintings actually has a very intricately embroidered Koshur Jamavar Shawl. The artist is Claude Monet.


Monday, August 26, 2013

Kashmir in His Majesty's Secret Service

And while we are still on philims...a bit of trivia.

What are the odds that a Bond flick would have two Kashmir born actresses in it? A million dollar odds.

Zaheera (credited as Zara) in her debut film 'On Her Majesty's Secret Service' (1969). She played the role of Indian 'Angel of Death' in this Bond flick.

Zara (21 at the time), was born in Kashmir and went to live in England when she was 12. And studied economics in London.

Joanna Lumley who played the English 'Angel of Death' in the film was born in Srinagar in 1946 to a British Indian Army officer.

Based on these facts, I declare 'On Her Majesty's Secret Service' (1969) to be the official favouritest Bond flick of all Kashmiris.


Previously: Peter Fleming in Kashmir, 1935. The younger brother of Ian Fleming, creator of James Bond fame.

Bilhana's Love Story in Film

The Rafi song from Shabab (1954) [movie link], the initial line is from Zauq and rest of the lyrics are by Shakeel Badayuni.

Shabab (1954) was inspired by love story of 11th century Kashmiri poet Bilhana. The original story is available as: Bilhaniyam, play written by Narayana Shastri, then there is BilhaniyaKavya and the Bilhaniya-Charitra. And as Bilhaniyamu, a late-eighteenth-century Telugu reworking of a Sanskrit poem, deemed immoral in Victorian era. The episode is said to taken place in court of King Anhil Pattana of Gujarat, and may or may not have been biographical.

In the story, Bilhana is introduced as a blind man to a Princess he is supposed to teach. The princess is introduced to him as a leper. All this so that the handsome man does not seduce the Princess. But the ploy is exposed when Bilhana accidentally, in a moment of joy, describes in lucid details beauty of book. The veil of deception is lifted. The two naturally do end up falling in love. The King, of course, is not happy. So, 'Off with the head', he goes. While in prison, Bilhana composes 50 erotic verses that come to be known as Chaurapanchasika (the Fifty Stanzas of Chauras)[a vintage English edition]. There are multiple versions to the story. In the Southern version, the King is impressed by the verses, and the two get together. In the Kashmiri version, the poet awaits the judgement.

In the film version, to keep with the cinematic trends of the time, Bilhana meets a Devdas-ish end. And so does the heroine.


Interestingly, there is South Indian film from 1948 called Bilhana inspired by the same story. 

Biscoe's Cure

When Tyndale  Biscoe started his school, among many problems he had to deal with while trying to correct the character of Kashmiris was a problem of particularly vicious nature. He found most of his students addicted to literature of the dirty kind. He found the problem to be of epidemic proportions. He needed a cure for the disease. The solution he came up had a typical stamp of ingenuity. He talked to Dr. Neve and asked him how much paper can a human body have before it causes any serious damage. After getting the scientific estimate he put his solution into play: Any boy caught with such dirty literature was made to eat it.

Did the Pandit boys, who were probably not even allowed to have Tomato,  wonder if paper is Satvik or Tamasic?


An Ad from The Indian Express dated December 9, 1942

Grande Odalisque (1814) by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres.
The painter added a couple of extra vertebrae, an anatomical inaccuracy,
to make the painting more alluring, more eastern, he made the back of the woman more serpentine.
'Serpentine Head Gear'
Kashmiri Pandit Woman. 1939. [By Ram Chand Mehta]
A recently heard a Pandit priest claim that all Kashmiri women come from 'Nagas' or the Snake race. 

The snake woman or Lamia by J. Lockwood Kipling, father of Rudyard Kipling.
It accompanies the story of 'The snake-woman and the king Ali Mardan'
in 'Tales of the Punjab : told by the people' (1917) by Flora Annie Webster Steel (1847-1929). Another version of the story can be found in 'Folk-Tales of Kashmir' by Rev. J. Hinton Knowles (Second Edition, 1893. Narrated by Makund Bayu of Srinagar
), in which the snake woman claims to be Chinese and Ali Mardan Khan, actually the Mughal governor of Kashmir, builds Shalimar Garden for her. In Kashmiri the name for the snake is given as Shahmar.


Kadru, is the mother of Nagas, and wife of Kashyap, the mythical creator of Kashmir. In, Adi Parva, we learn that Kadru cursed her offsprings for not doing her bidding. The curse with played out by King (Arjun's great-grandson) Janamejaya's famous Snake Sacrifice. The serpent race was saved by intervention by Astika, born of wedlock between Rishi Jaratkaru of Yayaver and Manasa, sister of Vasuki Naga.

[Near Jammu, Mansar Lake is the spot associated with Mansa Devi. One of the early description of the Lake can be found in Vigne's travelogue from 1842]


Sunday, August 25, 2013

Amar Mahal Museum, Jammu

The insides of the Amar Mahal Museum in Jammu.

This would be the second galley from the town, parts of which I have moved online.


In 2011: From Kala Mandir, Jammu: Minaiture Paintings, Old Photographs of Jammu, Old gates of Mubarak Mandi

In 2010: Some Street paintings from Jammu. (This year I saw that most of them have now been reclaimed by men and nature)

Ferdinand Stoliczka's Memorial

Guest post by Man Mohan Munshi Ji 

Ferdinand Stoliczka ( Czech, 1838-1874) was a palaeontologist who worked in Indian Palaeontology, Geology and various aspects of Zoology including ornithology and herpetology. Stoliczka studied Geology and Palaeontology at Prague and Vienna graduated with a P.H.D. in 1861. He joined the Geological Survey of India under the British Govt. under Thomas Oldham. He along with W.Thomas Blandford documented the cretaceous fossils of South India. He studied the geology of Western Himalayas, Ladakh and Tibet. He also made two trips to Andaman and Nicobar Islands. He also worked in the Rann of Kutch from where he reported Hunting leopards and Stoliczka’s Bushchat. His third and last expedition to central Asia i.e. 2nd Missions to Yarkand with T.D. Forysth. They set out from Rawalpindi to Leh Shahidulla and finally reached Yarkand in December 1873 and began their return journey in March 1874 and after crossing the Karakorum, he suffered from severe headache from which he could not recover and died at Moorghi village in Ladakh on 16 th June 1874 probably due to acute mountain sickness pulmonary or cerebral oedema. The British Government of India erected a grand memorial as a mark of respect for the service he rendered to the 2nd Yardkand mission.

Memorial of Ferdinand Stoliczka at Leh

Officers of Geological survey of India paying their homage to Stoliczka in 1960s


Saturday, August 24, 2013

Of White Gods and Dark Subjects

Yarkand anan zenan

Khoni keth doda-not ware heth
bari drav
Lokan chu sapharun tav
Tahkhith doda-gur Jenatuk bagwan

Yarkand anon zenan
Watal dop watje bonay sara zah

Chim mangan dalomuy ta kah
Tsoratsh ta or heth met hay, pakanawan

A few lines from a lost song 'Phorsat Sahibn Shar Yeli Yarkand Zeneni Gau' [The song of Forsyth Sabib when he went to conquer Yarkand]' by a Kashmiri folk bard named Sobir Tilawon recorded in Sir Aurel Stein's 'Hatim's Tales: Kashmiri Stories and Songs' (1928), recorded with the assistance of Pandit Govind Kaul. It talks about the turmoil created in lives of Kashmiri working class by Sir Douglas Forsyth's mission to Yarkand in 1873-4. In lives of workers, cobblers, tillers and carpenters. It probably is the first recored instance of the native consciousness in a work of folk art acknowledging the presence of Western men in their land and the impact it having on them. I wasn't content with the translation of the lines given in the book. Kaul sahib seemed a bit lenient on the British Imperialists. Or, may be a bit too smart. He translates 'Jenatuk bagwan' as 'Heaven's Gardner' and doda-gur as 'cow herder'...but if going with the way Kashmiri words work really, if Bhagwaan is actually Bagwaan and Doda gur is actually reference to color of a horse, these lines could as well mean:

Yarkand he is conquering
Carrying a milk-pail in his haunch,
earthern pots in a load
he goes forth
For people
journey is exhaustion
He , forsooth
White horse
Heavenly God
Yarkand he is conquering
Cobbler said to Cobbler's wife
"I shall not remember forever,
they want my leather and lace,
leather-cutter and awl,
and they want me.
O, they are taking me too"
Yarkand he is conquering

Punting up the river Jhelum, a gentleman aboard a dourmjah with two attendants 
Punjab Hills, early 19th Century

If from one side we have a consciousness that 'other' was like a God, with power to move men and matter at his whim, from the other side too we see a consciousness of a Godly impunity, a consciousness that 'We' have even intruded into domains where 'they' would only let 'their' Gods intrude, and a consciousness about what havoc it must be having on 'their' simple minds, and an unassuming confidence in 'his' power to get into the mind of these sorry creatures, and define the relations between 'Us' and 'Them'.

In 'Indian Memories: Recollections of Soldiering Sport, Etc.' (1915) by Sir Robert Baden-Powell, father of Scout Movement, we find this curious little incident showcasing white man's God moment and white man's consciousness of it:

At Bidjbehara, which I found too tempting to be resisted and stopped there a whole day, our charming bagh was invaded towards evening by the Resident of Kashmir and his camp, and 40,000 coolies (more or less), escort, tagrag and bobtail.  
Just opposite to where I lay moored was a Hindu temple. I had been interested in watching the ways of the devotees, and I took my dinghy and rowed unobserved close under their bank and listened to what they were saying. A priest came to them while they were eating their midday meal. He talked, not directly to them at first, but rather at them, steadily harping on one thing. " Life is vanity, the great river flowing by is like the Destiny of Life ; it rolls on ceaselessly, unmoved by the desires, or prayers, or tears of men; quiet but irresistible; calm but inscrutable." They seemed to forget their meal as his impressive refrain began to hold their attention.  
"Aye, brothers,' he continued," look at those straws, those bubbles borne along by the current. What are we but such as they ? borne along by Father Destiny, the Great River, whence ? it matters not: whither? we know not : what use for us to have ambitions, loves or hates ? Can we, mere straws, turn the Great River to suit our little aims? Do you, my brothers, not see the might of the great God ? Yes, in your heart you begin to comprehend his greatness and your own littleness. He comes to you - he comes -" 
Yes, he does, or the next thing to him does. An English tourist, kodak in hand, nose in the air, walks in, stepping through the assemblage as if they were so much dirt, and proceeds to " snap" their best idol. 
The spell was broken. Poor old priest, I quite felt for him. All his high-falutin thrown away. The disenchantment was complete. The women covered up their faces from the white man, and the men resumed their eating and began jabbering to each other their various experiences of the "mad sahib logue" they have met. 
Mad Sahib log indeed.

Friday, August 23, 2013

First Govenment Madrasa in Kashmir, 1868

Sometime History teases us with waggish little tales that make up this world and its present complexities. In fact, it often does that. You just have to read.

This is the funny little story of how the first government sponsored Madarsa for Kashmiri Muslims opened in the state, a school for the rich; the odd consequence of a Pathan sending his sons to read English language.

Thursday, August 22, 2013

Punditji on Jew Question, 1896

In 1911, at the age of seventeen, much before he became a skeptic, much before he become famous for investigating Helen Duncan - the last 'witch' of England, C. E. Bechhofer visited Kashmir as part of his great adventure in the East, or as he admits, as part of cure devised by his father "to knock the nonsense" out of him, rid him of poetry, Marxian socialism, women's suffrage and other such ideas.

At ruins of Martand, in the faded pages of a visitor's book he discover traces of a terrific controversy of many years ago. In his book, 'A wanderer's log; being some memories of travel in India, the Far East, Russia, the Mediterranean & elsewhere' (1922) , he writes:

A certain old gentleman, Colonel Coburn, who, besides his other activities, started a timber firm and a visitors' agency, claimed in ten scratchy pages of hysterical Christianity that the Kashmiri Hindus (most of them now forcibly converted to Mohammedanism) were originally Jews who had fled from Palestine after the Crucifixion, and that they had built this temple after the style of that in Jerusalem. Thus he explains to his 'dearly beloved brothers and brethren in Christ' the faithlessness and treachery of the modern Kashmiri.
"If," concludes the old gentleman, "you should find a wounded viper lying on the road, do all you can to care and restore it to life, for he will be grateful to you for it and repay you the debt of gratitude he owes you for what you have done for him, but if you find a Kashmiri in the same condition, get off your horse and kill him outright, for if you do him a good turn and save him, he is sure to be ungrateful and do all the damage he can in return! But all the fingers of one's hands are not the same length, as a native saying her is, and there are many noble exceptions to the above rules, and a good Kashmiri servant, like a good Scotch or Irish tenant out of their own countries, is about the best one can find."
Martand temple . Burke.  1870.

It is an idea, a theory that in a comic twist, sons of Kashmiri Pandits have now come to believe - We are Jews. Ironically, the answer to the theory was given in the same visitor's book by an anonymous Kashmiri Pandit with a wicked sense of humour. 
On the next page I found this comment from "A Kashmiri Pundit": I have read with interest the funny remarks of Col. Coburn about these ruins and the origin of the Kashmiri Pundits. After reading those remarks I am disposed to reverse Darwin's theory and hold that people who live to a great age are likely to pass down into the same animal to whom Darwin has traced the genealogy of mankind."
In the book the story ends there. But, there is more. The account of Bechhofer's visit to Martand and Bhawan was earlier published in a magazine called The New Age - A Weekly Review of Politics, Literature and Art (Volume 13, Number 13. July 24, 1913). In it Bechhofer wrote that the comments were made around fifteen years ago (should make that around 1896) and Colonel Coburn's establishment had since been taken over by an American (and "must be avoided"). And about that comment by Pandit he added: 
A Kashmiri Pundit, forsooth! It reeks of the Bengali lawyer. And I much prefer the statement of an English traveller, a little later: "Very interesting ruins, but saw no Jew at all"
And then, yes, and then there is this: "A very impressive place, interesting owing to my dear heathen forefathers and relatives believing in the sanctity of this spot, which I do not. - P.M. Rudra, Srinagar, 1898."
Unrelated post:
Vinayak Joo Razdan

Wednesday, August 21, 2013

Maps, 1590, 1652, 1792

From 'Historical Records of Survey of India' Vol 1-3,  Colonel R. H. Phillimore (1950). Probably most comprehensive work on early efforts at mapping India.

Father Monserrate's Map, 1590

Map by Sanson d'Abbeville, 1652

Rennell's Map 1792.


Tuesday, August 20, 2013

Kasam Tonight, 1947

Palladium. October 1947.

Qasam: The film that was playing at Palladium  in October 1947 as Srinagar prepared for war.

Remains of Palladium Cinema Hall, Lal Chowk, Srinagar. June, 2008.
 Burnt down in 1992.


Monday, August 19, 2013

Driftwood Catcher

Akhnoor. August,2013.

In monsoon when Chenab is in spate, on a flooded ghat can be found a young man trying to make some money by reeling in driftwood logs and a drift trees.


Sunday, August 18, 2013

Freezer = Kashmir

Something like idea of Home.
Jammu. July. 2013. 
"One hot summer day when I was six years old, my mother opened the refrigerator, and pointed to the ice compartment and below it to the pears and the plums. She exclaimed:"This is Kashmir!" In our home at Jaipur, the capital city of the arid state of Rajasthan, every scorching summer our thoughts, like those of innumerable indians, would turn to the cool heights of the Himalayas. From antiquity to the age of the computers, countless Indians have been beguiled by Kashmir, a land of learning as well as of lakes and lofty mountains."

~ Raghubir Singh's opening lines from introduction to his beautiful photo-book 'Kashmir: Garden of the Himalayas' (1983).

Saturday, August 17, 2013

Manja Makers

Jammu. July 2013.

My first experience with kites was in Srinagar. It was a failed experiment. I tied a pangot thread to a kanni and ran around, pretending it was flying. That was the last summer.

I really learnt the art in Jammu. But it was a different art. In Srinagar, it was a leisurely sport. You just tried to fly it high. But in Jammu, kite flying was like learning to fight a war. The art of this war required you scream, run, fight and capture. You need the right weapons. The perfect threads. The Manja of rough thread with the sharpest of glass. For short plays. You could even make it at home, powdered glass, glue and flour. Or you could use thread with more smoothness. Surtis. For longer plays. You need the perfect kite. A tactical Guddi. Or a mighty Gudda. A bhoot is perfect. You need to learn to read the cane backbone of the kite. Is it hard? Is it soft? Should the thread be tied near or a bit further down. You need the perfect crew. Someone to give the perfect Kanni. You need to learn to read the wind. You need to learn read the signal's from your enemies. Is he challenging you? You need to know when to pull the thread and when to let go. You need to burn the skin. Blend in. Sweat it out. Watch the skies. It is all an art. The only real art I know.

In fact, I even mastered the highest level of it. At the peak of my prowess, I could even lapet-in a lost kati patang. Sometimes two.

And I did it all but never ever even buying a Manja. My Manja was always put together from the threads that came in with the kites I looted. A Manja both Smooth and Sharp. With threads of colours red and greens. And blue and grey. And yellow and white...


Thursday, August 15, 2013

Kadalnama - Bridges of Srinagar

Compiling all the bridge data from previous posts into a single post for easy reading...

First one to build was Pravarasena-II.


[Photograph 1]

Zor Kadal/Zar Kadal/Zero Bridge. The zeroth bridge. Said to have been constructed by a deaf contractor in 1950s.

- from the book ‘Afoot Through the Kashmir Valleys’ (1901) by Marion Doughty. Also from the book:  note on how these bridges were built in Kashmir
[Photograph 2]
[Photograph 3]

[Photograph 4]

Omra Kadal/Womra Kadal/Amira Kadal/Amiran Kadal. First bridge. Built by Afghan governor Amir Khan Sher Jawan in 1774-1777.
From 'Indian pages and pictures: Rajputana, Sikkim, the Punjab, and Kashmir' (1912) by Michael Myers Shoemaker (1853-1924).
[Photograph 5]
[Photograph 6]
[Photograph 7]

Habb'e Kadal/Habba Kadal. Second bridge. Built by Habib Shah, ruler in 1551. Or believed to be by Yusuf Shah Chak (1510-17) and named after Habba Khatoon.

from 'The Romantic East: Burma, Assam, & Kashmir' by Walter Del Mar (1906)
[Photograph 8]
from 'Our summer in the vale of Kashmir' (1915) by Frederick Ward Denys.
[Photograph 9]
Fateh Kadal. The Third bridge. Built during Fateh Khan's rule (1510- 17 AD).

from 'The Romantic East: Burma, Assam, & Kashmir' by Walter Del Mar (1906)
[Photograph 11]

[Photograph 12]

from the book Irene Petrie : Missionary to Kashmir (1903). Photographs by Geoffroy Millias.
[Photograph 13]
Zaein Kadal/Zaina Kadal. The fourth bridge. Built by Zain-ul-Abidin (1420-74). 

By Francis Frith around 1875.
Via: V&A
[Photograph 14]

A'el Kadal/Aali Kadal/Ali Kadal. The fifth bridge. Built by brother of Zain-ul-Abidin, Sultan Ali Shah (1413-19) in 1415.

Nawa Kadal/Naw Kadal. New Bridge/Boat bridge. The sixth Bridge. Named after one Nur Din Khan in A.D. 1666.* Rebuilt in 1953 by Sheikh Abdullah, completed by Bakshi.

[Photograph 15]

Safa Kadal/Saifa Kadal/Saf Kadal/Safr Kadal. The seventh Bridge. Clean Bridge. Or bridge of departure. Said to be the Oldest. Built by Saif-ud-Din urff Suha Bhatt, Chief Wazir of Sikandar Butshikan and Ali Shah.  Or by one Saifulla Khan.*


[Photograph 16]
Kani Kadal. Stone Bridge.

Dareesh Kadal

Gaw Kadal

Badshah Bridge...

[Photograph 17]

Bohri Kadal...
...Rajvir Kadal/Razvir Kadal.** Built over Mar Canal by a princess from Rajouri.


* 'Kashmir in Sunlight & Shade: A Description of the Beauties of the Country' by Cecil Earle Tyndale-Biscoe. (1925)
**'History of the Panjab Hill States', Volume 1 by John Hutchison, Jean Philippe Vogel



Zor Kadal/Zar Kadal
Omra Kadal/Womra Kadal/Amira Kadal/Amiran Kadal
Habb'e Kadal/Habba Kadal
Fateh Kadal
Zaein Kadal/Zaina Kadal
A'el Kadal/Aali Kadal/Ali Kadal
Nawa Kadal/Naw Kadal
Safa Kadal/Saifa Kadal/Saf Kadal/Safr Kadal

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