Sunday, May 25, 2014

'Of Hills' by Tom Ashley Lakeman, 1944

The free book released this month under SearchKashmir Free Book project is not just about Kashmir, it is about experiences of a World War Two era British soldier whose travels took him to the hills and the seas. It is about places you could easily visit before the modern world grappling with aftermath of a war, altered and redefined concept of places.

Blurb for Tom Ashley Lakeman 'Of Hills' (1944) explains this beautiful book of verses and its purpose quite well:

'Of Sea and land, of Hills, of Loving Times'

To those who make the journey —

The photographs, verse and descriptions are to bring places near or to take readers far - at thought speed.
To the man from the hills by the Afghan border— on the cover - then glimpse of Kashmir; to Battlesbury on the steep western edge of Salisbury Plain. To Kashmir again — from Srinagar to Haramukh — then homeward to the cliffs of Devon.
To the Deosai Plains, not far from the Roof of the World, to India in England, to children, to the Indian forest, by Delhi, through the Red Sea to Malta, ending with Pir Guhl and the man from the hills.

The book was formed when a holiday was needed and it is hoped that others too will find holiday in these pages. May this book help, in some small way, the National Trust. After the war, what profit there is from the book will go gladly to help the Trust ; during the war it will be sent to the Royal Tank Regiment Prisoners of War Fund — for those who cannot yet see our shores.
Link to the Book

In 1945, the books had a sequel. To be uploaded next month...


Saturday, May 24, 2014

Lakhon Mein Ek, 1967, Pakistan

It is 1948 and Kashmir is already divided between two newly created nations. But a war still wages on and boundaries are being drawn and re-drawn. There is news of communal violence in Poonch. Prem Nagar (Love Town) is in sphere of violence. Caught in this violence are two patriarchs in town Khairabad, one Hindu and one Muslim, one Hardayal and one Ahmad. Both are looking for their missing family and young child. Hindus are killing Muslims. Muslims are leaving Poonch and heading for the land now rechristened 'Azad Kashmir'. Emotions are running high. Ahmad begs his friend Hardayal to leave for Hindustan. Hardayal does not want to leave his birth place and head for an unknown land but takes the advise. Ahmad promises to continue looking for Hardayal's daughter Shakuntala. Hardayal promises to look for Ahmad's wife and son Mehmood on the other side. On reaching the other side Hardayal finds the whole village of Prem Nagar burning with no sign of Ahmad's wife and son Mehmood. The shock of violence proves a bit too much for  Hardayal, he protests the violence and like Manto's Toba Tek Singh, ends up in an asylum. Ahmad manages to find little Shakuntala safe in a police station. He takes her in. When the news of violence in Prem Nagar reaches Ahmad, he takes his wife and son for dead. Little Shakuntala is afraid that in retaliation her Ahmad uncle will kill her. Ahmad tells her his Allah don't believe in such mindless violence. When a Muslim mob turns up at his house to get the girl, he tells them the same thing - 'not the way of true religion.' As often happens in movies (and in Bible), an instantly repentant mob drops weapons and goes away enlightened. We know Ahmad is going to raise Shakuntala as his own daughter. Meanwhile, little Mehmood evading a Hindu mob crosses over to Azad side and is rescued. But the violence does an erase job on his memories. He is taken in by a Pathan Dilbar Khan, a lorry driver who will raise him as his own son renaming him Dildar Khan.

Years later, lorry driver Dildar Khan meets Shakuntala and both fall in love with each other. Ahmad reminds Shakuntala not to do anything that would embarrass him in front of the society. He indirectly asks her if she has consummated her love with the Muslim boy. Shakuntala promises she did no such thing. Ahmad meets Pathan Dilbar Khan and politely asks him to stop Dildar Khan from wooing the Hindu girl. An angry Pathan confronts his son Dildar Khan and asks him what has he been doing with the innocent Hindu girl. 'Nothing, father, we just hugged once.' Pat comes a slap. 'Would you like it if someone hugs your mother or sister?' Love is forbidden. Caught in a dilemma, Dildar Khan promises to forget Shakuntala. Driving his lorry in a distraught state, he has an accident that again erases his memories and brings back old memories.

He wakes up from accident remembering his real name and the name of his father. He refuses to recognise Pathan as his father. Mehmood is reunited with his real father Ahmad and moves into his house. Here, he again meets Shakuntala but doesn't remember her as the woman he once loved but remembers her as the little Hindu girl he used to play with. A crestfallen Shakuntala sings her sad songs to the lovely valleys. Mehmood does not remember her. She cries. Mehmood does not remember her. Angry Pathan arrives at Ahmad's door to reclaim back his son. Pathan claims his son Dildar Khan became Mehmood so that he could live with Hindu girl Shakuntala. Shocked at hearing this accusation, Mehmood finally remembers everything. Love again blossoms. Everything is fine but then Shakuntala's real father Hardayal return from India to take back his long lost daughter.

It is obvious Shakuntala loves Mehmood. He is her god, yet, Shakuntala and Mehmood part ways for if they stay together it shall bring dishonour to everyone, every religion.

In Hindustan things don't get any better for Shakuntala. Hindustan isn't kind to woman who falls in love with a man prone to amnesia. It has been so since the birth of Bharat. The tyranny that amnesia inflicts on women gives birth to nations.

Amar Chitra Katha

In Hindustan, Shakuntala is looked down upon because she slept in Pakistan, Land of Pure. In India, she is treated as impure and not even allowed to enter the temple. Shakuntala wants to return to the real land of pure. Father is helpless.

Shakuntala's problems only compound. A rich Hindu sets his lecherous eyes on Shakuntala and using the help of a local conniving pandit manages to marry her. But on their first night together, Shakuntala tells him that her heart belongs to someone else. Scene cuts to the temple of her heart and we see her singing bhajan the her love god.

God of love from Pakistan.
No weapons here.

Sung by Noorjahan and written by Fayyaz Hashmi of 'Aaj Jaane Ki Zid Na Karo' fame, 'Man Mandir ke Devta' is a curious specimen from old world Pakistan where even propaganda had to be rooted in a certain unavoidable intimacy with the enemy. Pakistan has come a long way since then and Pakistani cinema is of course as good as dead.

The conniving Pandit and the profane rich landlord.
The regular Hindu punching bag blokes in Pakistani cinema.

Scorned, Shakuntala's husband decides to put an end to this unholy love. He shoots off a secret message to Mehmood pretending to be Shakuntala and asks him to meet up at the border. He plans to kill Mehmood. Shakuntala overhears the evil plan and rushes to save Mehmood. In the finale at the line of control, Shakuntala takes a bullet for Mehmood and dies. Mehmood takes back Shakuntala's body to Pakistan, the land of pure.

Funny thing, the subcontinental popular cinema. In 1962, the story of Shakuntala was retold in Indian film 'Ek Musafir Ek Hasina' (1962). Again a girl in love with an amnesic boy and again a drama set in Kashmir. However, while the Indian film towards the end disintegrates into a regular Bollywood affair so that in sum Kashmir just looks like an exotic prop, it is surprisingly the Pakistani propaganda film which at least is a bit more focused in its depiction of complex geographical and ethnic setup of Kashmir. Indian films were and remain very vague about these things. Who in Bomaby would have made a film about a place called 'Poonch'? 

If you invert 'Lakhon Mein Ek', if it was made in India, if the girl was muslim and the amnesic boy was Hindu, if the rhetoric was kept the same, if the story is again told over the dead body of a woman, if the religious overtones are a bit diluted and a nationalistic flavour is a bit amplified, if a dying Shakuntala was to again plead the case of a nation, you get the story of Raj Kapoor's Henna (1991).  


Watch the entire film here


This is Part 1 of two part series on 'Kashmiri women in Pakistani cinema'. In part 2, we are going to look at the curious case of a Kashmiri pandit girl pleading the case for Pakistan.


Previously: Bollywood and their Kashmir nonsesne

Friday, May 23, 2014

Sunday, May 18, 2014

Hora Kola Tonch ~ The Pied King-Fisher

At Nagin Lake, at the house of a friend.
Feb, 2014. 

The Pied King-Fisher (Ceryle rudis leucomelanura)
Kashmiri name:
Hora Kola Tonch


Kashmiri names of Birds of Kashmir

Kingfishers Catch Fire, Rumer Godden, 1953

"Two little bulbuls were sitting on a wall,
Quarrelling and pecking, quarrelling and pecking,
Pecking pecking pecking pecking.
This is more than flesh and blood can stand.
Now all that is left
Is the tail of one bulbul
And the beak of the other."

A white woman takes an old house of a pandit on lease and decides to live 'poor' in Kashmir with her two children.  She loves Kashmir and its people. She thinks she can make a new beginning here. But the British woman is too 'meddling', too 'uncontrollable' and can't help herself trying to correct the locals and their ways. Soon enough the alien community in which she lives is vying for her attention, everyone wants 'mem' on their side. The age old rivalry between the clan of Dars and Shiekhs burn even more feverishly and leads to new polarizations. Unknown to the foreigner, the simple fact of a white woman living alone by herself in a house in Kashmir causes tiny ripples in social fabric of the natives, soon enough a wave of inane violence engulf her 'Dilkhush' world. It is a Kashmir in which no one person truly understands another person, or even tries. Or rather, it is a world where there are only frivolous misunderstandings which lead to serious tragic consequences. A Kashmir where everyone is innocent but also guilty. Guilty of an undefinable vaporous thing called simple human emotions of beings living in a complex modern world. A world where a person can poison you in a mistaken attempt to make you love them.

The novel came out of personal experiences of Rumer Godden when she moved with her children to a place called 'Dove House' in Kashmir in 1941. She went on to live there for three years. 'Kingfishers Catch Fire' is also one of the few works which she later went on to disown a bit. The work seems to be a product of pure raw emotions of living in an alien society that can appear hospitable as well as threatening at the same time. The finale of the novel comes out of a true incident in which Rumer Godden's (in her words 'mad') cook tried to poison her.

The depiction of Kashmiri society by Rumer Godden is brutal. It is as if no one cared for anyone, everyone seems mean and indifferent. Pandits don't get along with Muslims, Muslims don't get along with each other. Everyone is worried about their relative poverty. The only redeeming quality they all seem to possess is their simplicity. Which of course if accidental because the modern world hadn't caught up with them. It is a simplicity that Rumer Godden's main character Sophie wants to emulate, it the modernity that Sophie wants to escape, she wants to be poor, she wants them to see how rich their really are, but all her attempts are bound to fail. 

The way the story unfolds with its stages of innocent enamourment with Kashmir, trying to adjust and change the place for better, and the creation of mess in which everyone wishes you were never there in the first place, it does make one think that the story is an allegory on British engagement and disengagement with the Indian Sub-continent. 

The Dove House, the model for Dhilkusha, Sophie's mountain bungalow.
[I believe it is the 'Ishber' area, which finally became more inhabited in the late 60s and 70s]

Photo from: Colonial Strangers: Women Writing the End of the British Empire By Phyllis Lassner (2004)


You can read the book 'Kingfishers Catch Fire' for free here at Open Library


Previously: The Anita Desai's parallel story that takes place in a house of a pandit in Kasauli when pandits were the new 'angrez' of recently independent India: Fire on the Mountain, 1977


Tuesday, May 6, 2014

How those old Kanz Mool photographs were actually shot

Because there are hundreds of these photographs with 'native women with pestle and mortar, pounding rice'...every photographer worth his salt had to have this shot in his Kashmir inventory...


A questing man with camera came,
And Kashmir maiden fled in shame,
Her heartbeat quickening in her haste,
Her twinkling bare feet keeping pace.
The, feeling safe from distant arms,
She, woman-like, did feel her charms
And, courage held in tight-gripped calm,
She slowly, fawnlike, came again,
And gave him face and form and name

~'Of Hills' by Tom Ashley Lakeman, 1944.

Monday, May 5, 2014

Sketches and water colors by Miss Patty Aberigh-Mackay, 1915

From  'A Sketching tour in the valley of Kashmir' by Miss Patty Aberigh-Mackay for Studio International (1915-16), Volume 66.

A Nullah (canal) on Dal lake

Autumn on Dal Lake

Hari Parbat

Sunday, May 4, 2014

Legends of Kashmir (1982) by Edna Machanick

Edna Machanick lived in India from 1951 to 1955 and often spent months on houseboats of Kashmir. Here she collected these tales from Pandits and Muslims. Much later, she illustrated and published the stories as 'Legends of Kashmir'.

The stories included in the book are:

The Birth of the Lakes of Kashmir (A pandit folklore about origin of Springs in Kashmir, this one is about a place called Khrew, which once had more than three hundred springs and now only about eight remain. Th story and the place...some time soon)

The Rajah and the Snake Princes, rather famous story of Ali Mardan Khan and his Chinese Snake wife, also given in the most authoritative work on the subject, 'Folk-Tales of Kashmir' by Rev. J. Hinton Knowles (1888)

Phutu, the Dwarf. ('Foot Two' of English), is rather funny tale of an unlikely hero.


The Farmer's Wife and the Tiger

She who became the Sister of the Prince. An interesting tale in which an evil Afghan prince is reformed after he takes a Pandit woman as sister. The story gives the name of the evil Prince's father, who is a thorough good fellow, as 'Sultan Jannulabdin'. An obvious reference to Zain-ul-Abidin, the Budshah. However, in this story, it is the Prince who suffers from an ailment (a curse) and is cured by a Pandit woman whom he had earlier disrespected.

The King of the Crocodiles. About a girl who is almost force married to a Crocodile who doesn't turn out to be a bad guy.

The Princess of the Green Chili. This one about a little Chili lady raised by a Jinn. A typical 'put-to-sleep' Kashmiri tale involving birds.

The illustration by Edna Machanick are truly imaginative and give the magical feel of the story and the place perfectly. The only other illustrated version of Kashmiri folktales is by 'Kashmiri folk tales' (1962) S. L. Sadhu in which local talent was utilised, but the illustration by Edna Machanick are more expansive and detailed.

It is amazing the places our tales have traveled. Tales we have forgotten. It is amazing the places I have to recollect them from. This beautiful book of Kashmiri folktales come all the way from South Africa. The name Edna Machanick is much respected there is even a scholarship awarded in her name to female undergrad students.


Saturday, May 3, 2014

Kashmiri names of Birds of Kashmir

Based on 'The Birds of Kashmir' by Samsar Chand Koul, 1939.

The crow family (Corvidae)

The Raven (Corvus corax tibetanus)
Kashmiri name:
Botin kav
Khata in Leh

Common in Ladakh region

The Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos intermedius)
Kashmiri name:
Diva Kav, Pantsol Kav
Can be seen around higher reaches of Pahalgam

The House Crow (Corvus splendens zugmayeri)
Kashmiri name:

The Jackdaw (Corvus monedula monedula)
Kashmiri name: 

The Red-Billed Chough (Pyrrhocorax Pyrrhocorax)
Kashmiri name:
Wan Kavin

The Yellow Billed Magpie (Urocissa flavirostris cucullata)
Kashmiri name (in Lolab valley):
Lot Raza

The Tit Family (Paridae)

The Grey Tit (Parus major kashmiriensis)
Kashmiri name:
Ranga Tsar

The Crested Black Tit (Lophophanes melanolophus)
Kashmiri name:

The Babbler Family (Timaliidae)

The Streaked Lavghing-Thush (Trochalopteron lineatum lineatum)
Kashmiri name:
Sheena-pi-pin, The Snow Whistle

The Bulbul Family (Pycnonotidae)

The White-Cheeked Bulbul (Molpastes leucogenys leucogenys)
Kashmiri name:

The Himalayan Black Bulbul (Microscelis psaroides psaroides)
Kashmiri name:
Wan Bulbul

The Creeper Family (Certhiidae)

The Himalayan Tree-Creeper (Certhia Himalayana)
Kashmiri name:
Koel dider

The Wall-Creeper (Tichodroma muraria)
Kashmiri name:
Lamba dider

The Thrush Family (Turdidate)

The Bush chat (Saxicola torquata)
Kashmiri name:
Dofa Tiriv

The White-Capped Redstart (Chaimarrhornis leucocephals)
Kashmiri name:
Chets tal,
Kumidi in Kolahoi area

The Plumbeous Redstart (Rhyacornis fuliginosa fuliginosa)
Kashmiri name:
Kola Tiriv

The Black Throated Thrush (turdus atrogularis)
Kashmiri name:
Wanda kostur

Tickell's Thrush (Turdus unicolor) 
Kashmiri name:

The Himalayan Whistling Thrush (Myiophoneus temminckii temminckii)
[Lawrence's The Song Thrush of Kashmir]
Kashmiri name:
Hazar Dastan, Kava Kunur

The Flycatcher Family (Muscicapidae)

The Paradise Flycatcher (Terpsiphone paadisi leucagaster)
Kashmiri name:
Young and female, Ranga Bulbul
Adult, Fhambaseer (cotton flake)

The Shrike Family (Lanidae)

The Rufous Backed Shrike (Lanius schach erythronotus)
Kashmiri name:
Hara wataj (wataj means executioner, the bird name is used also as a phrase in Kashmiri for someone mean)

The Campephagidae Family 

The Short Billed Minivet (Pericrocotus Brevirostris Brevirostris)
Kashmiri name:
Wozul mini

The Drongo Family (Dicruridae)

The Indian Grey Dronga (The King Crow) (Dicrurus leucophaeus longicaudatus)
Kashmiri name:
Gankots, Telakots

The Warbler Family (Sylviidae)

The Great Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus stentoreus brunnescens)
Kashmiri name:

The Pale Bush Warbler (Horornis pallidus pallidus)
Kashmiri name:
Dofa Pich

The Oriole Family (Oriolidae)

The Golden Oriole (Oriolus oriolus kundo)
Kashmiri name:
Poshi Nul (flower mongoose)

The Starling Family (Sturnadae)

The Starling (Sturnus vulgaris humii)
Kashmiri name:

The Myna (Acridotheres tristis tristis) (The sad grasshopper eater)
Kashmiri name:

Cinclidae (Dipper Family)
The White Breasted Dipper (Water Ousel) (Cinclus cinclus kashmiriensis)
Kashmiri name:

Family Fringillidae
The Black and Yellow Grosbreak (Perrisospiza icteroides icteroides)
Kashmiri name:
Wyet Tont

The Rosefinch (Carpodacus erythrinus roseatus) (erythrinus wrongly given as crythrinus)
Kashmiri name:
Gulob Tsar

The Goldfinch (Carduelis caniceps caniceps)
Kashmiri name:

The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus parkini)
Kashmiri name:

The Gold Fronted Finch (Metaponia pusilla)
Kashmiri name:
Adult, Tyok
Young, Taer

The Green Finch (Hypacanthis spinoides spinoides)
Kashmiri name:
Saboz Tsar

The Meadow Bunting (Emheriza cia stracheyi)
Kashmiri name:
Won Tsar

Hirundinidae (Swallow Family)
The Swallow (Hirundo rustica)
Kashmiri name:

Motacillidae (Wagtail Family)
The White Wagtail (Motacilla alba hogsoni)
Kashmiri name:

The Grey Wagtail (Motacilla cinerea melanope)
Kashmiri name:
Khak Dubbai

The Yellow-headed Wagtail (Motacilla citreola citreoloides)
Kashmiri name:
Ledor Dub-bai

Alaudidae (Lark Family)
The Little Skylark (Alauda gulgula guttata)
Kashmiri name:

Order - Pici Picidae (Woodpecker Family)
The Green Woodpecker (Picus squamatus squamatus)
Kashmiri name:
Koel Makots

The Pied Woodpecker (Dryobates himalayensis)
Kashmiri name:
Hor Koel Makots
Koel-Ku-Kor (tree hen) Koel Tatak in Lolab area

The Wryneck (Iynx torquilla japonica)
Kashmiri name:
Viri Mot

Order - Anisodactyli (Coraciadae Family)
The Roller (Coracias garulla semenowi)
Kashmiri name:
Nila Krash

Meropioae Family
The Bee-Easter (Merops apiaster)
Kashmiri name:
Tulri Khav

Alcedinidae (King-Fisher Family)
The Blue King-Fisher (Alcedo atthis pallasii)
Kashmiri name:
Kola tonch

The Pied King-Fisher (Ceryle rudis leucomelanura)
Kashmiri name:
Hora Kola Tonch

The Upupidac (Hoopoe Family)
The Hoopoe (Upupa epops epops)
Kashmiri name:

Order - Coccyges Cuculida (Cuckoo Family)
The Pied Crested Cuckoo (Lamator jacobinus)
Kashmiri name:
Hor Kuk

Order - Psittaci 
Psittacidae (The Parrot Family)
The Slaty Header Parakeet
Kashmiri name:
Tota, Shoga in Lolab valley

Order - Striges The Strigidae (Owl Family)
The Indian Barn Owl (Tyto alba Javanica)
Kashmiri name:
Rata Mogul

Order - Accipitres (The Birds of Prey)

The Pandionidae Family
Osprey (Pandion haliaetus haliaetus)
Kashmiri name:

Gypidae (The Vulture Family)
The Himalayan Griffon (Gyps Himalayensis)
Kashmiri name:

The Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus percnopterus)
Kashmiri name:

Falconidae (Birds of Prey)
Pallas Fishing Eagle (Cuncuma leucorypha)
Kashmiri name:
Gada Grad

The Black-Eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus)
Kashmiri name:

The Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)
Kashmiri name:

Order - Columbidae Family Columbidae
The Turtle Dove (Streptopelia orientalis meena)
Kashmiri name:
Wan Kukil

The Ring Dove (Streptopelia decaocto decaocto)Kashmiri name:

Order - Gallinae  (Family Phasianidae)
The Chakor (Alectoris graeca chukar)
Kashmiri name:

Order - Grallae (Family Rallidae)
The Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus parvifrons)
Kashmiri name:

The Purple Coot (Porphyrio pollocephalus pollocephalus)
Kashmiri name: 
Wan Tech

The Common Coot (Fulica atra atra)
Kashmiri name:
Kolar, Kav-put

Family Jacanidae
The Pheasant-Tailed Jacana (Hydrophasianus chirurgus)
Kashmiri name:
Govind Kav, Gair Kov

Family Charadriidae
The Common Sand Piper (Tringa Hypoleuca)
Kashmiri name:
Tont Kon, Kula Kavin

Order - Gaviae Family Lardiae
The Whiskered Tern (Chlidonias leucopareia indica)
Kashmiri name:

Order - Herodiones Family Ardeidae
The Common Heron (Ardea cinerea cinerea)
Kashmiri name:

The Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax)
Kashmiri name:

The Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus minutus)
Kashmiri name:

Order- Anseres-Ducks Family Anatidae
The Mallard (Anas platyrhyncha platyrhyncha)
Kashmiri name:
Male, Neluj, Female, Thuj

Order-Pygopodes Family Podicipidae
The Dabchick (Podiceps ruficollis albipennis)
Kashmiri name:


Some additional names from 'The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Commercial Industrial, and Scientific: Products of the Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal Kingdoms, Useful Arts and Manufactures, Volume 3' by Edward Balfour, 1885.

Great Snow Pheasant
Kashmiri name:
Gor-ka-gu and Ku-buk-der

Impeyan, or monal (Lophophorus impeyanus)
Kashmiri name:
Male, Lont and Ham, female

Chukor (Caccabis chukor. Gray)
Kashmiri name: 
Kau-kau (see Koul's naming)


Still some more from 'The Valley of Kashmir' (1895) by Walter Lawrence, (who does point mention that Kashmiris, even if they loved them, had little knowledge about birds around him)

The Snow Partridge (in Gilgit, Koreish)

The Himalayan Snow Cock (Ram chikor of sportsmen ; Gurka-kao in Kashmir)

The Chikor Partridge (Kashmiri, kak)

Lophophorus refulgens. The Monaul Pheasant (Kashmiri, male Sunal or Suna ' Murg ' ; female Haum)

The Simla Horned Pheasant (Rang RawuI of some Kashmiris; Riar in Hazara)

The Kashmir Pucras Pheasant. Commonly called Koklas

The Bald Coot (Kashmiri, Kolar)

The Laughing Gull (Kashmiri, Krind)

The European Common Tern (Kashmiri, Kreu)

The Curlew (Kashmiri, Golar)

The Woodcock (Kashmiri, Zar Batchi)

The Grey Goose (Kashmiri, Ans)
The Ruddy Shielddrake (Kashmiri, Tsakao)

The Shoveller  (Kashmiri, Honk)

The Gadwall (Kashmiri, Budan)

The Pintail Duck (Kashmiri, Sok Pachin)

The Widgeon (Kashmiri, Shiewrni Budan)

The common Teal (Kashmiri, Keus)

The Blue-winged Teal (Kashmiri, Kulkilar)

The Red-crested Pochard (Kashmiri, Tur)

The White-eyed Duck (Kashmiri, Harwat)

The Smew (Kashmiri. Gagur)

The Lesser Cormorant (Kashmiri, Mung) [The word that triggered this post thanks to a recollection by my grandmother]

The European Cuckoo (Kashmiri, Shakuk or kuku)

The Eastern Calandra Lark. (Fall in Kashmiri.)

The Indian Great Reed Warbler (Kashmiri, Karkat, Kurkoch of Kaul )


Some from: Grierson, George Abraham. A dictionary of the Kashmiri language. Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1932.

(f.-kröshü -क्रा&above;शू&below;), a certain bird, the European Roller (Coracias garrula) (L. 136, nilakraish); cf. nīla-krôshu, s.v. nīl 2.-pūtu -पूतु&below; । पार्वतीयः कपोतःm. a kind of pigeon

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