Sunday, January 31, 2016

Complete Chronology of All Kings of Kashmir

King with his queens and attendants
Awantiswamin temple

A chronological Chart of the History of Kashmir based on Kalhana's Rajatarangini (1148-1149 A.D.) and other original sources.

Based on a basic list compilation originally done by T.N. Khazanchi for Marg Magazine in 1950s as Superintendent, Archeology and Museum Dept. Srinagar.

[I have appended additional interesting bits, updated with recent researches in the field and my notes on the various eras. Point to note Patañjali’s Mahābhāsya c.150 B.C is the first mention of Kashmir in an Indian source. Mahabarata mentions Kāśmīramandalam, a pilgrimage holy site for sages. Some Nepalese recension of Mahabharata mention Haramukuta (Haramukh) pilgrimage. ]

Kalhana's account opens with Gonanda I (accession assumed Kali Samvat 653, Lankika S. 626) and first book ends with Yudhisthira. The aggregated length of reign for 75 kings has been shown at 2268 years.  The account is of course not absolutely reliable from a historical point of view. But Kalhana was working on genuine tradition, text sources (now lost, like work of Padmamihira, who in turn used another lost work of this kind, the Pārthivāvalī of the Mahāvratin Saiva ascetic Helārāja) and some of the kings have a definite historical existence. Book II of Kalhana opens with Pratapaditya I and ends with Sardhimati-Aryaraja. The aggregate length of reigns for this period is 192 years. The third book opens with Meghavahana and ends with Baladitya. The aggregate length of the reigns for this period is 589 years with 300 years ascribed to Ranaditya alone.

Moulvi Ghulam Hasan Shah (1832-1898) in his three volume 'Tarikh-i- Hasan' is only source for the 'lost' kings of Kashmir and based on an old Rajatarangini written by one Pandit Ratnakar, called Ratanakar Purana and was found by one Praja Pandit.

The Lost Kings:

1. Gonanda
A relative of Jarasandha, king of Magadha. Killed by Balabhadra, brother of Krishna.

Reigned for 17 years. 

2. Damodara
Killed by Krishna.
Reigned for 13 years. 

3. Yasovanti 

Wife of Damodara I 

Reigned for 15 years. 

4. Damodara II

Son of Yasovanti and Damodara
Killed by his Prime Minister Harnadeva

Reigned for 40 years.

Kalhana mentions the king as Kubera’s friend and that Guhyakas obeyed him. Possible reference to the riches he earned

Pandava Dynasty

5. Harnadeva

Grandson of Arjuna

Reigned for 30 years. 

6. Ramadeva 

Married daughter of Shiva Rai, ruler of Gandhara.

Reigned for 69 years. 

7. Vyasadeva

Married Kalabhawani daughter of king Jaswant of Marwar.

Reigned for 56 years. 

8. Druna 

His wife Margidevi built the temple of Margeshvara at village Kuther.

Reigned for 58 years. 

9. Simhadeva 

Village Simhpur founded by him.

Reigned for 54 years. 

10. Gopaldeva 

Chief of Kashgar was brother-in-law of Vijayananda. Chief of Khuttan won the war from Chief of Kashgar 

Reigned for 13 years and 3 months. 

11. Vijayananda 

Younger brother of Gopaldeva. Won back Kashgar. Defeated Khuttan.

Built the temple of Vijayeshvara at Bijbihara. 

Reigned for 25 years. 

12. Sukhadeva

Son of Gopaldeva. Lost territories in Punjab to king of Delhi, Chitrath. Also, lost Turkistan.

Murdered while hunting in mountains of Amarnath by drawing in Liddar river by Rama Nanda, son of Vijayananda.

Reigned for 44 years. 

13. Rama Nanda

Subjugated ruler of Jammu.

Reigned for 57 years. 

14. Sandiman

Son of Rama Nanda. Founder the city at a place which is now the bed of Wular Lake, known as Sandimatnagar (still known as Salabatnagar). Built the temple of Zeshteshvara. Invaded territories as far a Kanauj. Married Partidevi, the daughter of King of Kandhara. She died at Attock, on way to Kashmir when her boat capsized. 

Reigned for 65 years. 

15. Marhandeva and 16. Kamandeva 

Marhandeva and Kamandeva were sons of Sandiman. In their hostility, the country got divided into two. South-Eastern went to Marhandeva and North Eastern to Kamandeva. 

Karmandeva founded the village named Marhama. Kamandeva (unjust king) made Sandimatnagar his capital. A comet appeared that year. In the same year, the rains were heavy. Also, a huge snake appeared at Chakdar which died but its carcass stayed for a year. Based on the divisions made by two kings Kashmir is still divided as Maraj and Manraj. 

Marhandeva reigned for 55 years. 

17. Chandardeva

Son of Marhandeva. Killed Kamandeva. A debauch king, he had 360 wives, one for each lunar day.

Reigned for 52 years. 

18. Ananda

Brother of Chandardeva. Cruel king.

Reigned for 28 years. 

19. Drupadadeva

Son of Ananda. Kind king. Built the temple of Jwalamukhi at the village Shar. 

Killed by brother Harnamdeva with an arrow to the eye.

20. Harnamdeva 

Built vineyards and distillers. Unjust king who was almost defeated by his commander-in-chief named Durga. Durga almost defeated Harnamdeva but people backed Harnamdeva and helped defeat Durga. Repentant Harnamdeva remitted two years' revenue. Later Durga's son named Rangu killed Harnamdeva while he was on a hunting expedition. 

Reigned for 39 years. 

21. Sulkandeva

Son of Harnamdeva.

Pleasure loving King worked only on Saturdays.

Reigned for 28 years. 

22. Sinaditya

Foolish king who paid ten million dinars for a celestial virgin. 

Killed in bed by his brother Mangaladitya.

Reigned for 17 years. 

23. Mangaladitya

A bad ruler. In his time a mist appeared inhalation of which caused many deaths.  

Reigned for 39 years. 

24. Khimdendra

Son of Mangaladitya. Killed by minister Druna for outraging the modesty of his wife.

Reigned for 66 years. 

25. Bhimsena

Son of Khimdendra. Unjust king. Built the temple of Koteshvara on Jhelum bank and founded the village of Simpur.

Reigned for 61 years and 7 months. 

26. Indrasena

Son of Bhimsena. Unjust king.

Reigned for 46 years. 

27. Sundarsena

Son of Indrasena.  Sandimatnagar drowned due to earthquake as prophesied by Nanda Gupta. Only a potter survived and took refuge at Kralasangar hillock. The earthquake also created Khadanyar hillock at Baramulla.

Reigned for 41 years. End of Pandava dynasty.

Kashmir was kingless for 2 months. Survivors of the flood elected Lava as the king, a relative of the ruler of Malwah and a jagir holder at Lolab.

28. Lava

He founded the city named Lalau in Lolab valley [which contained 84 lakh houses according to Kalhana but 80 thousand according to Ratnakar]

Reigned for 60 years. 

29. Kusha

Son of Lava. Granted the village of Karuhara (Kolar) to brahmins.

Ruled for 7 years.

30. Khadendra

Founded Khagi and Khonamusha (now called Kakapur and Khunmuh)

Reigned for 30 years. 

31. Surendra

In Dravad country founded a town called Soraka. Founded village Saurasa (now called Shurat) in Deosar tehsil. Died without a son. First native Buddhist ruler of Kashmir. [Kalhana uses Helārāja as the source till ]. Found the Buddhist Narendrabhavanavihāra

Ruled for 43 years.

32. Gudhara

Came from a different family. Gave the village of Godhara (Godar) and Hastishala (Hastihel) in Deosar to Brahmins.

Reign lasted 37 years

33. Suvarna

Son of Gudhara. Brought to Krala (Ardavani/Advin) canal called Suvarnamani (Sunamani-kul) for irrigation. The canal flows to the east of Zainapur plateau.

Reign lasted 35 years

34. Janaka

Son of Suvarna. Founded Jālora Agrahāra and Jāloravihāra, the village Jalora (Zalur) in Zainagir and Vihu.

Reign lasted 32 years

35. Sachinara

Son of Janaka. Founded village Shamangasa (Shangas in Kuthar) and village Shanara (Shar in Vihu).

Reign lasted over 40 years

36. Galgendra

Nephew of Sachinara. In Maraj, founded a city named Naunagar which had 13,0000 houses and brought a stream to this city from the river Rambiara.

Reign lasted 45 years

37. Baladeva

Son of Galgendra. Founded the village Balapur Suparsuman. Bhigham, the king od Ujain or modern Delhi sent a force to invade Kashmir but was defeated by Baladeva.

Himal of the folklore Himal-Nagrai was the daughter of Baladeva.

Reign lasted 43 years

38. Nalsena

Son of Baladeva. Very cruel. Nalsen in Kashmiri still means a very cruel person. Died with family in a fire.

Reign lasted 25 years

39. Gokarna

A noble from Jammu Rajas elected king. 

Temple of Sharkadevi at the foot of Pradyumna-pitha (Hari Parbat) built by him. Villgae Brand (Bren in Phak) given as brant for maintenance of this temple.

Reign lasted 36 years

40. Prahlad

Son of Gokarna. Built the temple of Priteshvara on Shirakut hip in Khuihama formerly called Bu Sangri and now Baba Shukruddin hill. Became a sanyasi ayer coming in touch with a saint named Druna. Gave the kingdom to his minister Bambru.

Reign lasted 11 years

41. Bambru

Fell in love with maternal cousin's wife named Lolare. He would song out "Lo.Lo.Lo". From them it is assumed comes the folklore of Bambur ti Lolare. 

Reign lasted 8 years

42. Pratapashila

A descendent of Galgendra. Founded the city at the foot of the hill in Vular called Pratapa-Nagar. Built the temple of Pratabeshvara at Bhawan. Ran off with a woman to never return.

Reign lasted 36 years

43. Sangram Chandra

Son of Pratapashila. Founded a village named Sangrampura in Pattan. 

Reign lasted 1 year and 4 months.

44. Larik Chandra

Brother of Pratapashila. Built the city Larik-nagar (Lar) at the foot of the Vatargang hill. The city was said to be so dense you could walk the roofs from east to west. Larkul stream was dug on his order in village Lar.

Reign lasted 31 years

45. Biram Chandra

Son of Larik Chandra.

Reign lasted 45 years

46. Babighana

Son of Biram Chandra. Actual ruler his wife Chakra Rani.

Reign lasted 17 years

47. Bhawant

Son of Biram Chandra and Chakra Rani.

Reign lasted 14 years

This ends the reign of lost kings of Kashmir (complied by Pandit Anand Koul based on writing of Hasan Shah, all catagorised as unverifiable.)

The present [definitive] list opens with Asoka, since his is the first name of the rulers of Kashmir which has a genuine historical basis. With the accession of Durlabhavardhana (founder of Karkota dynasty and successor of Baladitya) the genuine historical account of Kalhana begins [annals of the Tang dynasty of China have indicated that his time-line for the Karkota kings needs to be pushed forward by about 25 years]. 

48. Asoka [1st century BCE/CE]

Kalhana opens his account with fifty two 'lost kings' of Kashmir out of which 17 names were recovered from Nilamatapurana, Helaraja and Chavillakara. The first name is that of Gonanada I. Since the account is historically untenable, the reference to this period is usually eschewed. The sway of Asoka over Kashmir is doubtless established, even though the sites mentioned do not exist now. Asoka according to Kalhana is son of Sacinara's grand-uncle and great grandson of Sakuni.

During Asoka's time Viharas and Stupas at Suskaletra and Vitastatra came up. Foundation of Srinagari, the old capital known as Pandrethan was setup. Resuscitation of Saiva Shrine at Vijayeshvara. Asokesvara temples at Vijayeshvara. [The source of Ashoka/Jalauka story for Kalhana is the lost history of Chavillākara]

49. Jalanka [Jalauka]

Supposed son of Asoka and an unnamed woman atop Shankracharya hill as a boon from Bhūteśvara. According to Cunningham the temple of Shankracharya was built by Jalanka but not supported by architectural evidence.

Built the Agrahara at the hamlet of Varabala (Baravul).

His queen Isanadevi, installed circles of mothers [mātṛcakra] in the regions that formed the gateways of the kingdom of Kashmir. Royal preceptor was Avadhūta, a tantric master. The king expelled foreigners from Kashmir, settled people of four castes in the valley. Conquered Kanyakubja and other regions of north India.

50. Damodara III

The present airport is located on Damodar Udar.

51. Huska [mentioned in Kharoshthi inscriptions] 52. Juska. Sten Konow in 1929 based on Kharoshthi inscriptions held him same as Vasishka. According to Konow: Vasishka and Huvishka are mentioned as successors of Kanishka. To explain this, he backs up with theory of Hemchandra Raychaudhuri about two Kanishka [I, the famous one], is followed by Vasishka, his brother Huvishka, and Kanishka II, son of Vasishka, is the ruler of Kashmir mentioned by Kalhana. Which might explain why the "famous" inscriptions that Kashmiri scholars have been looking for in Kashmir may not exit in Kashmir. As the events described by Kalhana are actually of Kanishka I. According to Tibetan sources the council took place in Jalandhara.

Now accepted chronology based on inscriptions and coins is:

Vima Kadphises113-127 CE
Kanishka I127-151 CE
Huvishka151-190 CE
Vasudeva I190-230 CE
Kanishka II230-247 CE

Dr Stein identified Chachh with Chuksha, west of the city of Taxila. Taxila was its capital. 

Taxila silver vase inscription mentions Jihonika [], the satrap of Chachh, son of 'Manigula'. His coins however mostly found in Kashmir and Hazara. 

53. Kanishka [2nd century (120-144)]

His capital at Peshawar [where was found Kanishka casket underneath Kanishka stupa, once a marvel of India, being the tallest building even in 7th century]. Kalhana called them Turushkas i.e. Turks. Later Turk kings of Gandhara claim Kanishka as their ancestor. Buddhism at its peak in Kashmir. According to the uniform Buddhist tradition Kaniska held the 3rd 4th great Council of the Church in Kashmir under Nagarjuna (said to be near the modern site of Harwan). Hiuen Tsiang ( 602 – 664 A.D.)  found local traditions regarding Kaniska fully alive in the country during his visit to Nagarjina in Kashmir during the time of Kaniska. Juska has not been identified.

Founding of towns of Kaniskapura, Huskapura and Juskapura (Kanispor, Uskura and Zukur).

Kanishka of Gandhara arrived in Kashmir (about 400 years after the death of Buddhas) to dispose off the Kritya* kings who had abandoned Buddhism and fallen back to older traditions. After he leaves. Kritiyas again gain power. According to Konow a Tibetan text speaks of a King Kanika, who arrived from Khotan to conquer. 

*Kritiyas, at the time was used contemptuously to mean unclear/lowborn/pigs/demons who dig out corpses/"serfs"-slaves bought. In the story of these people we find for first time hatred for a group of people in Kashmir, for their foreign origin, for their religious practices and for their rise to power. A hatred coming from outside. 

After about 50 years post death of Buddha (around 450 BC), monk Madhyantika arrives in Kashmir to bring it into the domain of Dharma. He brings along with him Manushakritya, "householders" (brahmins) slaves to inhibit and serve the place. These people are referred as Kritiyas in Buddhist texts. They become the rulers of Kashmir after the death of Madhyantika. Native Naga worship mixes with Brahminism. They were removed from power by Kanishka. 

Hiuen Tsiang mentions that in around 280 A.D (600 years after death of Buddha) Sakya race king of Himatala [sue-shan-hai/under the snowy mountain] of Tukhara [Indo-Scythians of Central Asia, Bactria, his origin placed in Shakya territory. Driven out of there during Buddha's time by King Virudhaka.] with warriors came in disguise of traders to kill the Kritya king of Kashmir and re-establish Dharma again. After beheading the king in court, he hands over the country to monks and leaves. Krityas come to hate the Dharma all the more as more than once they had been defeated. 

54. Abhimanyu I

Anti Buddhist trend in Kashmir. The traditional cult as represented in Nilamata-purana restored. However, Buddha mentioned as an avatar of Vishnu in Nilamata and celebrated. People practice Naga+brahminical+Buddhist practices. 

Patanjali's Mahabhasya introduced in Kashmir by Chanda. Circa 100 B.C.

55. Gonanda III
56. Vibhisana I
57. Indrajit
58. Ravana
59. Vibhisana II

Restoration of Naga cult and land recovery.

60. Nara [AD. 89-99]

Also known as "Kimnara". Founded Narapura (on bank of Vitasta). Buddhism in decline.

Nara's wife is seduced and taken by a Buddhist sramana. Nara responds by destroying Viharas and giving away Buddhist vihara lands to Brahmin Mathas. [Posssibly the era when Bijbihara went into Brahminical fold]  

Fantastical tale of Naga Susrava destroying Narapura using thunderbolts as the king coveted Naga's daughter Chandraleka married to a Brahmin. Susrava's sister Ramani also drops rocks. The people who have taken refuge in Chakrin Vishnu temple (at Chakdhar mound in Bijbihara) are all killed. Vitasta filled with blood and flesh (in words of Kalhana like the marks on Peacock's tail). [The events possibly allude to destruction of the city by earthquake]

Kalhana also tells the story of Brahmin Vishakha saving Naga's from famine by tricking a māntrika (watchman) who keep watch over the crops. Hail/Rains is supposed to be form of Nagas. In Buddhist origin tales of Kashmir, Naga king Araval tries to defeat monk Madhyantika using hail, storm and thunder.

61. Siddha

Son of Nara. In the end, flew to heaven.

62. Utplaksa
63. Hiranyaksa
64. Hiranyakula

Founded Hiranyapura (modern Ranyil)

65. Vasukula
66. Mihirakula

It is assumed Kalhana shows him to be 1200 years earlier than his real date. His father Tormana shows up later in Kalhana's Rajatarangini. It is now understood that there were two Tormana. In list of Alchon Huns 
Mihirakula [c.515–540] is proceeded by a Tormana  [c.490–515] and followed by a Tormana [c.530–570, father of Parvasena, founder of present Srinagar]. This Tormana was brother of Hiranyakula [?].

Kalhana claims he is  known as Trikotihan, the killer of 3 crores. He killed hundreds of elephants on the ancient pass of Pirpantsal for fun.

[Probably around 493 A.D. based on his encounter with Baladitya of Gupta Empire based on writing of Hiuen Tsang]

Story of Mihirkula, at least one version of it, is similar to the story of Rincana. Mihirkula wanted to be buddhist (his father was Jain according to some Jain text )...but was offended by the monks. He turned anti- buddhist. Just like story of Rincana, the source of the tale is the party which apparently refused conversion. There is at least 1 Buddhist text that claims Mihirkula converted to buddhism...impressed by self-sacrifice of lowly monk who was send to convert him. In Chinese travelogue we read that brahmins of Kashmir were not happy with activities of Mihirkula as they themselves were into sutras and respected Buddhism. Kalhana's testimony is towards that. He say's during that era Kashmir was overrun by Mlecchas [refers to speaker of foreign tongues]. We see Kalhana look down upon the Brahmins from Gandhara that the king introduced in Kashmir [around Bijbehara].

Bühler held that there were two Toramānas and Mihirakulas. Mihirkula's name is found in Gwalior inscription of Mihirakula at a Sun temple. It was discovered in 1861 by Alexander Cunningham. "Mihar" means Sun. Kalhana mentions he built a temple in Kashmir, "Mihiresvara", Stein assumes it to be a Shiva temple. Alchon Huns practice a mix for solar worship (common in Iran) and worship Kushan deity Oesho, out of which start evolving concept of Shiva as it is now understood.

Chinese monk Song Yun is said to have met a Hun king in his army camp in c.520 at Talagang near salt range, Jhelum valley. The king is assumed to have been Mihirakula. He writes that Huns were there to control the salt trade of Kashmiris.

67. Baka.

Son of Mihirakula

First proper mention in Rajatarangini of Yoginis and tantric practice:

Baka attracted by a yoginī called Bhaṭṭā, becomes a sacrificial victim offered to a circle of goddesses (devīcakra). The yoginī acquires supernatural powers and flies up into the sky. At the end of the story, it is mentioned that the footprints of the yoginī, a god named Śatakapāleśa [the Lord of a Hundred Skulls] and the circle of mothers provide a recollection of this event in the monastery (maṭha) of Kherī, south of the Viśokå River (Veśau).

68. Ksitinanda
69. Vasunandra

Wrote a handbook on Erotics

70. Nara II
71. Aksa

Son of Vasunanda
Aksavala (modern Acchabal) founded by Aksa

72. Gopaditya

Son of Aksa
Temple of Jyesthesvara on Gopadri said to be built by him.

73. Gokarna

74. Khinkhila Narendraditya [c.430–490]

Alchon Hun King. In coins represented as "Deva Sahi Khingila". His name found on the base of a statue of Vinayaka found in Kabul in Proto-Sharda inscription. Sharda script taking birth. 

These royals practice artificial cranial deformation. The head is artificially elongated, propably to show their royal status.  

75. Pratapaditya I

The first king of Book II of Rajatarangini. Unconnected with Gonanda dynasty. Supposed to have been a relative of King Vikramaditya. Perhaps Harsa Vikramaditya of Ujjain is indicated. Kashmir experiences first instance of a prosperity in its early history.

76. Jalankas

Possible that Kalhana (or his source) in fact was talking about a Hephthalite king [White Huns of Central Asia, now understood to be actually Alchon Hun and not Hephthalite]. In Sanskrit the word means "leech". It is possible the whole story was a way to establish Alchon king's claim over the land by linking himself to Ashoka.

In Talagan copper scroll in Sanskrit[discovered in 2006, Talagan is supposed to region in Bactria, east of Kunduz in northern Afghanistan. or better it may be modern town of Talagang in Punjab [Pakistan], north of the Salt Range], we find name of Alchon Hun Kings Khingila, Toramana, Javukha, and Mehama (who was reigning at the time the scroll was made 493/94) as donors to a Buddhist reliquary stupa in a place called Sardiysa in Talagan. They were obviously at easy with Buddhism. Based on the finding, the widely accepted theory that White Huns finished Buddhism in Gandhara is now questioned. Hans T. Bakker, indologist assumes Sardiysa to be the famous Sharda in Neelum valley. [A Buddhist Foundation in Śārdīysa, 2018]. According to him, the place name Sharda predates the goddess Sharda if this scroll is considered to be about Sharda.

Javukha (c.490) "son of Sadavikha" is assumed to have reigned in the Swat Valley.

77. His son Tunjina I

A great famine came.

78. Vijaya
Belonged to a different family.
Founded town of Vijayesvara (modern Bijibehara)

Earliest sculpture Brahminical sculptures done in Gandhara + Sasanian style found at Bijibehara belong to 4th-5th century.

79. Jayandra
80. Sardhimati Aryaraja [Sandhimat]

Aryaraja was the minster of Jayendra and was cruelly put to death but miraculously restored to life by Yoginis. In a burial ground Yoginis put his bones together in front of his Guru and revive him from dead. Sandhimat enjoys himself with the intoxicated Yoginis as a ‘leader of their circle’ (cakranāyaka), rituals as told in tantric texts. He is elected King.

Sandhimati Aryaraja seems to have figured in Kashmir tradition as the beau-ideal, a royal devotee. Abdicated and lived as a recuse at Siva-Bhutesa.

81. Megavahana
[Around 5th century A.D.]
Book II Closes with Aryaraja's abdication. Restoration of Gonand's family with Megavahana. Patron of Buddhism. Said to have come from Gandhara.

[ His wife Amrtaprabha. Daughter of King Pragyotisa of Bhutan. Sent to Kashmir with her Guru Stonpa. Built Amrtabhva Vihar. Mentioned in writings of Ou-kong, Chinese pilgrim who visited Kashmir during the years 759-763 A.D]

Kalhana tells a tale with Buddhist elements of compassion, a tale told about some other legendary kings too:

King Meghavāhana sees a barbarian (śabara/kirāta) about to kill a man in front of a Caṇḍikā/Cāmuṇḍā temple. The barbarian wants to offer the victim to save his son from dying. The king volunteers to become the victim and is about to cut his own head off, when Varuṇa appears and saves him. The king had to go through this ordeal because of his cruel ancestor, Mihirakula, although he was compassionate himself.

Stories from Kalhana in this period hint at end of human sacrifice by Meghavāhana.

82. Sreshthasena (also known as Pravarasena I and Tunjina II)

Sacred structures at Puranadhisthana (Modern Pandrethan) came up. Siva temple of Pravaresvara which existed during Kalhana's time.

83. Hiranya, 84. Tormana (II) [c.530–570]

No independent evidence regarding the historical existence of Hiranya. Tormana represented as his younger brother. Name of Tormana on a species of Kashmir copper coins, large quantities of which have been found. Evidence of characters suggests 5th and 6th century A.D. Based on that earlier experts used to surmise that he is identical with the Epthalite king Tormana, the father of Mihirkula. And thus assumed  that in Kalhana's chronology, father has been placed some 700 years after the son. Or perhaps, there was different Tormana in Kashmir [we now know that there were 2 Tormana]. Because of 2 Tormanas the chronology of Kalhana about Alchon Hun rulers gets jumbled. 

85. Matrgupta

The story of Kalhana represents Matrgupta as a poor poet who has sought the court og king Harsa, Vikramaditya of Ujjayni. This king sends him a letter directing the minister of Kashmir to install him on the throne. Abdicates subsequently in favor of Pravarasena II [Alchon king]. Founded the temple of Matrguptasvamin. During his time flourished Mentha the writer of Hayagrivadha.

86. Pravarasena II
[c.530–590, Late 6th century]

Authentic historical data exists for Pravarsena. Represented as son of Tormana who was on a pilgrimage when Matrgupta was crowned. Supposed to have conquered Gujrat. Contemporary of Siladitya who was on the throne of Malava in 580 A.D. as narrated by Hiuen Tsiang. This is confirmed by the foundation of Pravarpura also recorded by Hiuen Tsiang. Rare specimen of his coins exist both in gold and silver.

He founded the Pravarsenapura or Pravarpura (Modern Srinagar) around Hari Parbat. He plans as Shiva temple Pravareśvarain at Pravarapura, but miraculously a Vishnu image appears at the place, he names it Jayasvāmin after the architect of the temple.

A Magical Katha told:

After death of his father Pravarsena meets a holy man, a pāśupata order siddha named Aśvapāda on the mountain of Śrīparvata.  Pravarpura is promised kingship by Shiva. The story has elements of the puranic legend of Upamanyu. Pravarsena becomes king.

When the King was looking for a site to build his city, one night he arrived at a river and on the other side of the river he could see the ghat where the dead used to be set afire. While the king stood watching burning pyres, he heard a laughter and a Rakshasa appeared with his arms raised, hands-up. The king was afraid but the Rakshasa asked the King to look beyond his appearance and manners. He was here to offer him his service, provided the King crossed over to his side like the king Vikramaditya. Saying so, the Rakshasa extended his arm in friendship, the hand became a bridge. The King took out a blade, a Kshurika and cut steps into the bridge so that he could cross over. On reaching the other side, the Rakshasa threw a measuring tape in the air, away from the spot, and told the King to build his city where he finds this measuring tape in the morning. And then the Rakshasa disappeared.  Next morning King found the thread at village Sharitaka, the seat of Goddess Sharika looked over by Yaksha Atta, the Lord of Watchtower.

Towards the end of Pravarasena’s life Aśvapāda send a brahmin messenger to the king informing him that his time is up. Pravarasena, obeying God's command, flies up in the sky to join his Lord, making a hole in the ceiling of the Pravareśvara temple. [Here Kalhana is probably explaining the story associated with the hole in the ceiling of Pravaresvara temple]. Stein in 1940 gives the probable location of the temple as Bahauddin Shrine of Srinagar based on the ruined temple base earlier documented at the place. The base design of the temple later became the model for other Kashmiri temples like Martanda.

In around 571 AD, Muhammad, the prophet of Islam is born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia

87. Yudhisthira II

Founded Skandabhavanavihara (modern Khandabhavana)

88. Lakhana, 89. Narendraditya

Perhaps may be connected to Udayaditya who represents himself as 'Raja Lakhana Udayaditya' on his coins - which is a coin of the Epthalite type.

90. Ranaditya [Around 6th century]

Son of Yudhisthira II and Younger brother of Lahkhana.  Supposed to have ruled for 300 years. Part of many magical tales. Example:

Ranaditya in previous birth fell in love with goddess Bhramaravāsinī who lived on the Vindhya mountain. Goddess is reborn as Raṇārambhā and marries Ranaditya while retaining her godly supernatural powers. She placed her own double next to her husband every night and flew out herself in the form of a bee ["Bhramara" in sanskrit is "Bee" and Bees are usually associated with Vindhyavasini goddess, possibly due to extensive bee population in forests of Vindhya. On such temple still stands. ]. The same goddess gave her husband the mantra of Hāṭakeśvara, which helped him to descend to the underworld and enjoy himself there for many years—a superhuman achievement which is called pātālasiddhi in many tantric texts.

Here's it seems Kalhana is using Kathāsaritsāgara as the source which tells many such tales.

Also, builder of the earliest Vaishnavite Shrine in Kashmir. He build two Shiva temples, but due to supernatural powers of his wife, one of the temple becomes a Vishnu temple after the image in the temple miraculously changes.

91. Vikramaditya.

Son of Ranaditya

92. Baladitya.

Brother and successor of Vikramaditya. Last king of Gonanda's race. Married his daughter Ananglekha to Durlabhavardhana, who found the Karkota dynasty. 

Karkota Dynasty

93. Dwilabhavardhan (600- 636 A.D.)

Founder of Karkota dynasty. Karkota name coming from name of a mythical Naga serpent deity (name also mentioned in Nilamata). Durlabhavardhana is said to have been the son of Naga. Thus this is considered to be the start of the rule of Naga Karkota dynasty.  Coins show him as "Durlabhadeva". We have also possibly a reference to Dwilabhavardhana in a notice of the Chinese annals, which mention Tu-lo-pa as a king of India who controlled the route from China to Ki-pin i.e. the Kabul valley somewhere between 629-647. Hiuen Tsiang visits Kashmir (631-633) during his reign. He distinctly records that Taksasila (Taxila, now in Rawalpindi district Punjab of Pakistan) east of Indus (already in ruins in Tsaing time ), Ursaor Hazara, Simhapura or the Salt range with smaller hill-states of Rajapuri and Parnotsa (modern Punch), had no independent rulers, but was tributary to Kashmir. Vaisnavism marks a presence in Kashmir among royals. Only one temple of Shiva built/renovated by this dynasty.

Hiuen Tsiang ( 602 – 664 A.D.) mentions that in his time neighbouring kings held the Kashmiri Nagas in scorn, they refused alliance with them. He adds that they even called them, Kilito, translated as Kritya. He says that Kashmir at the time was again in control run of ki-li-ti / Kritiyas and thus Dharma (Buddhism) was in decline. 

94. Pratapaditya II/Durlabhaka ( 636-686 A.D.)

Built the temple and town of Pratappura (modern Tapar, 22 miles west of Srinagar)

95. Candrapida/Vajraditya (686-695 A.D.)

Eldest son of Pratapaditya II. Founded shrines of Tribhuvanasvamin, Prakasikavihara, Gambhiraswamin and Chalitasvamin. He has been identified with king Tchentolo-lopo-li mentioned in the Chinese Annals as ruling Kashmir A.D. 713, and again in 720 A.D. This contradicts Kalhana's account who places him in A.D. 686-695. Only from 855 A.D. are Kalhana's dates strictly correct. Margin of error in Kalhana dates by 25 years. Candrapida worried about Arab advance of Muhammad Qasim who occupied Sindh and lower Punjab around 711 and 713. Candrapida sought help from China, none arrived. Qasim was recalled to Damascus by Caliph Sulaiman. Arab invasion was averted. In around 712 AD, just when Caliphate forces conquered Sindh, a Syrian refugee named Hanim/Hamim arrives in Kashmir. Considered first muslim in Kashmir. Sindh ruler Raja Dahir Sen' son Jaisya took refuge in Kashmir and Hanim arrived with him. After Jaisya died, Hanim took over his dependency. 

96. Tarapida (695 -699 A.D.)

Ruled for only 4 years. Died of black magic.

97. Lalitaditya Muktapida  

Youngest son of Pratapaditya II. Most important ruler of the Hindu Period. The annals of Tang dynasty know Muktapida, under the name of Mu-to-pi, as the king of Kashmir who sent an embassy to the Chinese court during the reign of the Emperor Hiuen Tsung (A.D. 713-755), and after the first Chinese expedition against Baltistan which occurred sometime between A.D. 736-747. Lalitaditya a great conqueror. In the reign of Caliph Hisham (724-43) the Arabs of Sindh under governor Junaid again threaten Kashmir but are defeated by Lalitaditya. Lalitaditya also defeats Yasovarman of Kanauj. Kalhana mentions Bhavabhuti and Vakaoatiraja among the poet of Yasovarman's court. Territories of Jalandhara and Lohar (Present Kangra and Punch), held by Lalitaditya's feudatories. Sahi princes as well under his tutelage. Extension towards Yamuna. Kalhana shows Lalitaditya as having conquered the whole of India which is not historically corroborated. Tokharistan conquered. Tibetans subdued. Conquest over Dards. Buddhism and Hinduism flourish equally under him. Died on a central Asian expedition.

Lalitāditya built a new stone temple to house the ancient Śiva Jyestheśvara at the site of Śiva Bhūteśvara to clear his debt to the latter incurred when he had appropriated the wealth of this temple to finance his military campaigns. The only Shiva temple by Karkota dynasty.

Jayanta Bhatta wrote Nayanamanjari. He hold the view: "any scripture can be accepted as valid, if (in addition to some other conditions) it does not cause abhorrence or fear among people (yebhyo nodvijate janaḥ)." 

Kashmir got Martanda Temple, Temples, Chaityas and Viharas at Parihaspura (modern Paraspor). Temple and Vihara at Uskura (ancient Huvishapura). Towns of Parihasapura, Lalitapura (modern Letapor) and Parnotsa (modern Punch).

98. Kuvalayapida 99. Vajraditya-Bappiyaka 100. Prthivyapida 101. Samgramapida I (736-751 A.D.)

Kuvalayapida, eldest son of Lalitaditya. Ruled for 1 year only and turned an asceti practicing quietism (śama). Bappiyaka was younger son of Lalitaditya through another queen, and ruled for 7 years. Unsteady rule. The last two mentioned were his sons who ruled for short period.

102. Jayapida (751-782 A.D.)

Youngest son of Bappiyaka. Founded Jayapur - Andrakor town.  His coins found in sufficient quantity. Credited by Kalhana as 'digvijaya' but no corroboration of his conquests. Usurpation of throne by Jaffa. Jayapida was a patron of literary men.

Invited engineers from Sri Lanka to help build water reservoirs. He most famous work was water fort named Dvaravati (named after Krishna's Dwarika), remains of which are now Bahirkut near Sumbal (Andarkut thought to be by Cunningham, but discovered to be Bahirkut by Buhler)

Vamana Bhatta wrote Kavyalamkaravrtti. Damodar gupta wrote Kuttanimata (have extensive description of Kashmiri art and culture around that time). Ksirasvamin wrote grammatical treaties and commentary on Amarkosa. Bhatta Udbhata wrote Alamkarasatra. Manoratha got quoted in Subhasitavali. Besides there were Thakkiya, Sankhadanta, Cataka and Sandhimat.

103. Lalitapida (782 -794 A.D.)

Son and successor of Jayapida. Neither of him nor of any other later Karkotas any coins have been found.

104. Samgramapida II (794 -801 A.D.)

Half brother of Lalitapida. Also known as Prthivyapida.

105. Cipattajayapida - Brhaspati (801 -813 A.D.)

Brhaspati was son of Lalitapida through Jayadevi, a concubine of low origins. Since the king was a child, royal power fell into the hands of his maternal uncles, Padma, Utpala, Kalyana, Mamma and Dharma who built various structures like: Utpalasvamin (Temple of Vishnu), Padmasvamin (Temple of Vishnu), town of Padmapura (modern Pampor), Dharmasvamin (temple of Vishnu), Kalyanasvamin and Mammasvamin beside Utpalapura (modern Kakpor)

During his reign Rudrat wrote Srngartilaka. Also, during this time Vasugupta, founder of Saivim in Kashmir wrote Spanda Karika ("The Karikas on Vibration,"). Tradition has it that Sivasutras were revealed to Vasugupta in a dream.

106. Ajitapida (813-850 A.D.)

Grandson of Vajraditya-Bappiyaka whom Utpala put on the throne by armed force after Brhaspati's death. Mamma assumes supreme power.

107. Anangapida (850 -853 A.D.)

Son of Singramapida II. Raised to throne by Mamma after defeating his brother Utpala.

108. Utapalapida (853 -855 A.D.)

Son of Ajitapida. Raised to the throne by Sukhavarman, son of Utpala who led a successful rebellion. Temple of Ratnasvamin was built during this era.

End of Karkota Dynasty. Start of Utpala dynasty.

109. Avanti Varman (855 -883 A.D.)

 Son of Sukhavarman who was son of Utpala. Most peaceful reign in the history of Kashmir. Patronage of arts and literature. Period of great internal recovery. First soil sample survey by Suyya who was a great Engineer and regulated the cource of Vitasta through great skill. Kashmir saved from floods for many centuries owing to the great efforts of Suyya. Prosperity in Kashmir. First reference to Damars or feudal lords of Kalhana. They prove of great trouble subsequently. Rudrata writes Kavyalankara, in it once of the earliest reference to chess in India, and reference to Knight's tour, a mathematical problem in which a knight on a chessboard moves such that it visits every square exactly once.

Minister Sura has the chief of the ḍāmaras killed in a temple. The king worships Bhūteśa in a nearby temple while his minister lures the ḍāmaras to the temple of Bhairava and the mothers.  He then decapitates the chief ḍāmara in front of Bhairava and throws the body into a nearby water tank. Damara (a feudal land-owner with private armies that a King could hire) was named Dhanva (Avantivarma was earlier allies with this Damara) and killed for appropriating temple endowment (agrahara) in the Lahara District [Lar, presently known as Loharin in Poonch district. Gagangir being the main fort]. Modern Kashmiri surname Dar (and possible Dhar) come from title Damara.

The story is interesting becuase Minister Sura was a Saiva follower while the King was a follower Vishnu. For his powerful minister's sake the king went along Saiva path (outwardly), only in his dying moments did he confess to Sura that in his heart he was a follower of Vishnu. During this era, Pañcarātra form of Vaisnavism popular in Kashmir, temples built on its concepts.

In A.D. 732 or 733 King Lalitāditya borrowed from the Bhūteśa Temple ten million dirinaras to finance an expedition to the south. Stein identified the temple at Vangath village, Narnag spring ruins on way to Mount Harmukha.

During his reign Kashmir got: town of Avantipura (modern Vantipur), Surapura (modern Hurapur), Suyyapura (Sopore). Temple of Samarsvamin, temples at Avantipur and structures at Wangath.

During this era Sivasvamin wrote Kapphanabhyudaya, Somananda wrote Sivadrsti, Utpaladeva wrote Pratyabhejna, Anandavardhana wrote Dhvanyaloka and Dersataka, Ratnakara wrote Haravijaya, Bhatta Kallata [ mentioned by Kalhana] wrote Spanda Sarvasva and works of Muktakana who was later quoted by Ksemendra.

Kalhana's chronicle now become all the more closer to verifiable history, easily cross verifiable with other works.



Jñnanetra (ca. 850-900, also known as Sivanandanatha) starts the Krama system in Uddiyana(now in Pakistan). This Saiva- Shakta stream popular in Kashmir places Kali as the central deity. Jñnanetra claims to have learnt it from Yoginis. The system is famous for having Saiva female gurus.

Theory of Dhvani or suggestion in literary criticism propounded by Anandavardhana. 

Rudrata writes Kavyalankara, in it once of the earliest reference to chess in India, and reference to Knight's tour, a mathematical problem in which a knight on a chessboard moves such that it visits every square exactly once.

110. Sainkara Varman (883 -902 A.D.)

Son of Avanti Varman. Spent a lot of time on foreign expeditions. Supposed to have led 9 lakh foot soldiers. Darvabhisara reconquered. Prithvicandra, ruler of Trigarta subdued. Victory over Alakhana, the ruler of Gurjara (modern Gujrat in W. Punjab). Lalliyasahi of Udbhanda helps Alakhana, but is subdued. Excessive fiscal exactions. Begar (forced labor) in great vogue. Parihaspura town robbed of material for laying out Pattana. Reference to preparation of woollen clothes at Pattana. Died in Hazara. 

Built the town of Sanikarapura later called Pattana (modern Patan). Temples of Sanikaragaurisa and Sugandhesa temples at Pattam. Also, Ratnavardhanesa temple.

111. Gopalavarman (902 -904 A.D.)

Son of Sainkara Varman. Ruled under the guardianship of his mother Sugandha, since he was too young. Murdered though machinations of Prabhakaradeva, paramour of Sugandha.

112. Sugandha (904 -906 A.D.)

Founded town Gopalapura and temple of Gopalakesava. Sugandha assumes power after the death of her son. Tantrins, a military caste come into power. Their rebellion puts Partha on throne.

113. Partha (906 -921 A.D.)

Child-son of Birjitavarman who descended from Suravarman, half brother of Avantivarman. Sugandha executed. Partha dethroned by Tantrins in favour of his father.

Induraja wrote Kavyalankara

114. Nirjitavarma (921 -923 A.D.)
115. Cakravarman (923 -933 A.D.)

Cakravarman was child son of Nirjitavarma. Tantrins demand huge sum as such he is deposed.

116. Suravarman I (933 -934 A.D.)

Half brother of Cakravarman. He too deposed because he could not pay adequate sums to Tantrins.

117. Sambhuvardhana (935 -936 A.D.)
Crown sold to minister Sambhuvardhana.

Cakravarman (restored,  936 -937 A.D.)

Damars support Cakravarman and defeat Tantrins. Cakravarman murdered by Damars. Cakravarman is assassinated after he becomes infatuated with the daughters of the ḍomba singer, Raṅga. Asks minister to wear the cloth stained with menstrual stains  of śvapākas [outcaste] women.

Kalhaṇa sarcastically say's: ‘Robbers for ministers, a ḍomba for queen and ḍombas for friends: what wonder of the world was there that did not belong to king Cakravarman?’

118. Unmattavanti (937 -939 A.D.)

He was another son of Partha. Senseless cruelty and wanton license. Destroys his relatives under the influence of Parvagupta, his minister. Partha murdered.

119. Survarman II (939 A.D.)

Last king of Utpala dynasty. Supposed to be the son of Unmattavanti. Ruled only for a few days.

120. Yasaskara (939 -948 A.D.)

Son of Prabhakaradeva, Sughandha's paramour. Yasaskara elected king by an assembly of Brahmins. 

In an episode King Yaśaskara is served by outcastes who eat what is left by ḍombas and makes a veśyā his first concubine, without knowing that she is also seeing a watchman. Kalhana looks down upon such practices.

Kayyata writes Laghuvrtti.

In the story of Yasaskara, Kalhana mentions how the religious practices of Gurus were changing (for the worse) and how the people were changing with it.

"Earlier]Brahmin preceptors did not drink wine while chanting the Sāmaveda, and ascetics did not take wives, children, cattle and corn.

Ignorant gurus, who perform ritual worship with fish and cakes, did not revise philosophical and scriptural statements in their own writings

Housewives did not figure as deities during the initiation of gurus, denying their husbands’ virtue and dignity by the shaking of their heads / bringing their husbands, virtues and glory to contempt by shaking their heads.]"

The last line probably alludes to the KP ritual that still survives in which post marriage, if there is any Yagnopavit event in the family, new wife sits in her husband's lap, a mulberry stick is touched ritually to left and right ear of the bride to the chanting of shlokas by the guru. All the other members of the family repeat the same with their wife. The whole ritual is collective and women are very central to these initiation rituals. As we can see, Kalhana did not approve of these practices that saw a change in a woman's position.

Ironically, what Kalhana laments back then, is now part of culture of Kashmiri Pandits that they remember nostalgically and try to retain. There are some now who even perform Yagnopavit for their daughters.

121. Sangramadeva (948 -949 A.D.)
122. Parvagupta (949 -950 A.D.)

A descendent of a family of clerks. Murders Sangramadeva and assumes power.

123. Ksemagupta (950-958 A.D.)

Son and successor of Parvagupta. Married lame Didda, grand-daughter of Bhimadeva, Shahi ruler of Kabul. Because the queen was the actual ruler, the coins carried her name too, the King was known with moniker, Didda-ksema. In the coins he is prefixed with 'Di' which stands for queen. Ksemagupta's union with Didda brought Kashmir under the rule of the Lohara family which continued to rule Kashmir as well as its original home down to the times of Kalhana and later.

Built temple of Ksemagaurisvara and Bhimakesava (modern Bumazur)

124. Abhimanyu II (958-972 A.D.)

Son of Ksemagupta. Didda assumes guardianship, since he was very young. Rebellions are mercilessly squashed.

125. Nandigupta (972-973 A.D.)

Was the young son of Abhimanyu. Regency of Didda continued. Great building activities. Nandigupta murdered by connivance of Didda.

Building activities: Abhymanyusvamin, Abhimanyupura, Diddasvamin, Diddapura Kainkanapura and Sinihasvamin.

126. Tribhuvana (973-975 A.D.)

Tribhuvana, another grandson also murdered.

127. Bhimagupta (975-980 /1 A.D.)

Grandson of Didda. Tunga, a Khasa from Parnotsa becomes Didda's Paramour. Bhimagupta put to death by torture by Didda.

128. Didda (980/1-1003 A.D.)

Didda herself has played an interesting and important part in Kashmir history. She was from her mother's side a grand-daughter of King Bhima Sahi of Udbhanda. She assumed supremacy for close to half a century, ever since her marriage to Ksemagupta. Tunga becomes Prime Minister during her direct rule. Samgramaraja, her brother's son appointed Yuvaraja.

During her reign the greatest Saiva Philosopher Abhinavagupta (c. 950 – 1016 AD) wrote Tantraloka, Parmarthasara, Pratyabhijna Vimarsini, Pratyabhijna Vi Vrti-Vimarsini, Para-Trimisika-Vivarama and Tantrasara.

Alberuni writes Kitab ul Hind. A lot of his information about Hindus comes from Kashmiri Pandits in the plains. He writes about Kashmir also.

First Lohara Dynasty

129. Samgramaraja (1003-28 A.D.)

Son of udyaraja, brother of Queen Didda. The period covered by Samgramaraja's reign witnessed great upheaval in the political conditions of Northern India under the impact of invasions of Muhmud of Ghazni. Kashmir troops under the command of Tunga support Sahi Trilocanapala in 1013 A.D., but were defeated. During A.D. 1015 and 1021 Mahmud tried to attack Kashmir, but fails. Tunga murdered after his return to Kashmir. Predominance of Darads, Diviras (clerks) and Damars.

Lothika Matha and Tellotama Math built in Kashmir. 

Ksemaraja (Pupil of Abhinavagupta) wrote Siva-sutra-Vrtti, Siva-Sutrap Vimarsini, Pratyabhijna-Hrdays, Spanda-Sandoha, Spanda-Nirnaya.

130. Hariraja (1028-1063 A.D. )

Son and successor of Samgramaraja ruled for only 22 days and Kingship passed to his young brother.

131.  Ananta (1028-1063 A.D. )

Younger brother of Hariraja. Rudrapala and Diddapala, princes of the Sahi family sought refuge in Kashmir and grew in power. Ananta married Suryamati, daughter of Inducandra, 'lord of Halanidhara'. Risings of Damars under Tribhuvana suppressed. Acalamaingala the Dard ruler who attacked Kashmir was defeated. Kalhana refers to King Bhoja of Malava who used to get water daily from Kapatesvara spring (modern Kother). Suzerainty maintained over Darvabhisara, Campa and adjacent hill territories.

Kashmir got temple of Gaurisvara, Subhatamatha and temple fo Sadasiva.

Ksemendra wrote Desopadesa, Narmamala, Darpadalana, Kalavilasa, Samayamatrika, Vrhatkathamanjari, Bharatamanjari, Ramayanamanjari, Pavanapancasika, Suvrttatilakam,  Kavikanthabharana,  Cirtabharata, Kanakajanaki and Amrtataranga.

Yogaraja (pupil of Ksemaraja) wrote commentary on Paramarthasara of Abhinavagupta. 

Bilhana wrote Vikramarikaderacaritam Caurapancasika and Karnasundari.

132. Kalasa (1063-1089 A.D.)

Ananta abdicates in favour of Kalasa, his son, under the influence of his queen Suryamati. Kalasa - a dissolute prince who practises tantric rites with Guru named Pramadakaṇṭha for power which corrupts his mind. Kalhana hints that Pramadakaṇṭha had relations [sva-sutā-surate] with his own daughter. Kalhana's indignation is triggered by orthodoxy that looked at tantra practitioners with horror.

Kalasa attacked his father Ananta who had shifted to Vijayesvara. Ananta commits suicide by sitting on a knife in A.D. 1081 and Suryamati burns herself as Sati. Kalasa consolidated his Kingdom. Assembly of hill chiefs (A.D. 1087-8) when the rulers of eight hill territories around Kashmir from Urasa in the West to Kasthavata in the east assembled at his capital. Conflict between Kalasa and his son Harsa. Harsa imprisoned in 1088 A.D. and Utkarsa, his younger brother recalled from Lohara for paving his way to the throne. Kalasa died at the temple of Martanda.

Kashmir got gold decked Shiv temples of Tripuresvara and Kalasesvara

Somadeva wrote Kathasaritasagara.

Kalhana mentions that use of tantric rites for power is now common among Kings and causing all kinds of evil. 

133. Utkarsa (1089 A.D.)

Utkarsa ruled for 22 days only. Harsa manages to escape from prison, and Utkarsa commits suicide.

134. Harsa (1089-1101 A.D.)

Harsa was well versed in many sciences and a lover of music and arts. Harsa introduced into the country more elaborate fashions of dress and ornaments - perhaps an indication of Muhammadan influence - and made his courtiers imitate his own taste for extravagance in personal attire. Kalhana's reference to the Dekhan fashions which Harsa copied in his amusements and also in his coinage is curiously corroborated to some extent by gold coins of Harsa, which in their type unmistakably imitate the contemporary coinage of Karnata. Ruthless spoilation of sacred shrines under Harsha for financial considerations. Temple treasures ransacked. Muslim captains employed for the first time under him. Harsa accused of incest. Disastrous expeditions in Rajapuri and Kisanganaga valley. Disastrous floods. Rebellion of Damars under Uccala and Sussala who were brothers and distantly related to Queen Didda. In A.D. 1101 Uccala attacked Kashmir from West and Sussala from the East. Harsa resisted hopelessly and was ultimately murdered. Uccala was the first to occupy Srinagar.

Kalhana's father Chamnaka [Canpakdvarajah], was a faithful adherent of Harsha.  Singer Canpaka [Kanaka] was Chamnaka's younger brother and probably a Buddhist. A Buddhist shrine/Image at Parihaspora was spared by Harsha at the request of Kanaka.

According to Tāranātha (1575–1634), at this time there were three great Buddhist teachers in Kashmir Sakyamati, Shilabhadra and Yasomitra (who wrote commentary on Yasubandhu's Abhidarmakosha)

Second Lohara Dynasty 

135. Uccala (1101-11 A.D.)

Kalhana's history from 1101 to 1149 fills not less than 3449 slokas and thus forms close on on-half of the whole work. Kalhana's work throws detailed light on the social and economic condidtions. Uccala was a capable and energetic ruler. Rebellion of Sussala who was made ruler of Punch. Uccala murdered in his palace by the city prefect and some conspirators.

Ruyyaka wrote Alamkarasarvasva and Mammata wrote Kavyaprakasa.

136. Radda-Sankharaja (1111 A.D.)
After Uccala, Radda, brother of the city prefect ruled for one night and was then murdered. 

137. Salhana (1111-1112 A.D.)

Gargacandra, a powerful Damara installs Salhana, half borther of Uccala as King.

138. Sussala (1112-20 A.D.)

Sussala combines with Gargacandra and becomes King. He was brother of Uccala. His rile was one long succession of internal troubles, caused by the rebellions of the powerful Damara whom Sussala in vain endeavoured to subdue completely. 

Kulhana Rahuta, a Kashmiri under Hoysalas built the first Saraswat temple in Doddagadda Valli in Hasan district in 1113 CE in Karnataka. 

139. Bhiksacara (1120-1121 A.D.)

Bhiksacara, Harsa's grandson combines with Damars and overthrows Sussala.

Sussala (restored, 1121-28 A.D.)

Sussala regains the throne in 1121 A.D. Damars burn the famous temple of Cakradhara during Sussala's restoration. Great conflagrations in Srinagar. Sussala murdered in 1128 A.D.

140. Jayasimha (1128-54 A.D.)

Jayasimha was son and successor of Sussala. Kalhana employs more than 2000 verses (more than 1/4 th of his work) for describing the reign of Jayasimha. Jayasimha's first 17 years of reign spend struggling against feudal barons (Damars). To embarrass him, they set up no less than 5 pretend kings, some of them crowned in the outlying district of Lohara. Jayasimha managed to hold on using intrigues. Kalhana closes his account with 1149 A.D. but on the authority of Jonaraja (15th century A.D.) who continued the work of Kalhana, Jayasimha ruled till 1154 A.D. Killed by Turukshas.

Kalhana wrote Rajatarangini during this reign. Mankha wrote Srikanthacarita. First, Kashmiri word mentioned in Rajatarangini.

Kashmir got temple of Rilhanesvara. Vihara at Bhalerakaprapa, restorations at Cankunavihara [stupa at Parihasapura], Matha on the shore of Padmasaras. Town of Bhuttapura and Sinihapura.

141. Parmanuka (1154-64 A.D.)

Son of Jayasimha

142. Varttideva (1164-1171 A.D.)

Son of Paramanuka

143. Vopyadeva (1171-1180 A.D.)

Elected by the people as King.

144. Jassaka (1180-1198 A.D.)

Younger brother of Vopyadeva. Lavanyas powerful under him.

145. Sri Jagadeva (1198-1213 A.D.)

Son of Jassaka. Rooted out evil laws in the country and was well versed in science. Expelled by his ministers but subsequently reconquered Kashmir. King poisoned by Padma, lord of Gates.

Jayadratha wrote Haricaritacintamani

Kashmir gor temple at Rajjuoura.

Nalanda destroyed by Bakhtiyar Khilji, invader belonging to a Turkic tribe long settled in what is now southern Afghanistan. Shakyashri Bhadra of Kashmir, the last abbot of Nalanda flees to Tibet in around 1204. Khilji heads to conquer Tibet, defeated by Assamese and Tibetan forces.  Khilji assassinated by fellow tribesman Ali Mardan Khalji who in turn is also killed off by his tribesmen.

Qutb ud-Din Aibak, a general of the Ghurid king Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori starts the Slave Dynasty (AD 1206-1290) running campaigns in plains of India. 

146. Rajadeva (1213-1236 A.D.)

Son of Jagadeva. Rebellion by Baladeyacandra, Lord of Lahara. Brahmins persecuted as they had elected Rajadeva as King. Bhattas sing, 'Na Bhatto ham, Na Bhatto ham.' I am not a Bhatta, I am not a Bhatta.

Built Rajapuri and Rajolaka.

Śārṅgadeva (1175–1247) moves to Deccan kingdom of King Singhana II (1210–1247) near Ellora Caves (Devagiri, modern Aurangabad). Here, he writes Sangita Ratnakara, considered first modern book on Indian classical music referred to by both Carnatic and Hindustani Classical Music traditions. Devagiri, the capital of the Yadava dynasty, fell to Alauddin Khalji in AD 1294. 

147. Sangramadeva (1236-1252 A.D.)

Son of Rajadeva. His brother Suryya was his Viceroy but dabbled in intrigues and was murdered. Damaras assume power and persecute people. Sons of Kalhana intrigue against the King. King is murdered. 

Built palace (Srivisala) at Bijibehara.

148. Ramdeva (1252-1273 A.D.)

Executed the murderers of his father. Those killed included progenies of Kalhana.

Built fort at Salar on right side of Liddar. Temple at Utpalaputra repaired.

Marco Polo meets Kublai Khan in around 1271-75. In (Buddhist) Iran, Arghun Khan (Ilkhanate King, from 1284 to 1291) demands his grand-uncle Kublai Khan for a bride. The bride is delivered by Marco Polo. But Arghun is dead by the time bride arrives and the bride Kokochin is given to his son Ghazan. Polo mentions Kashmir as land of "magicians" who cause rains at will. Allauddin Simnani (d.1336), uncle and teacher of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani (1314-84), was part of Buddhist Arghun's court. Simnani has religious differences with the king who has great respect for Simnani. Simnani claims persecution in court and flees but it brought back and forced to go up in debate against Buddists. Simnani writes, "There, he [Arghun] had assembled Buddist priests from India, Kashmir, Tibet and Ighur, along with the ascetics and the religious leaders of the idolaters around him, to engage in disputation with me. So I discussed and disputed them. But God Almighty lent me strength, and I was able to refute all of them, and to disgrace and humiliate them." At the end of it, Arghun tries to convince Simnani to give up Islam and even promises him to remain the court "Sufi". Simnani refuses and leaves, to him there is no common ground between muslims and non-muslim. 

149. Lakshmanadeva (1273-1286 A.D.)

Adopted son of Ramadeva and a Brahmin by birth. Killed by Kahhala, Turuska by origin.

His wife Queen Mahila built Mahilamatha.

150. Simhadeva (1286-1301 A.D.)

Was at constant conflict with Samgramachandra, Lord of Lahara. Murdered by Darya, husband of a girl who enjoyed the affection of the king.

Installed image of Narsmiha at Dhyanoddara.

151. Suhadeva (1301-1320 A.D.)

Brother of Simhadeva. Unsteady rule in Kashmir during this period. Dulcha, the commander of the army of the great king Karmasena invaded the country. Brahmins went on fast unto death. The Raja flew to Kishtwar. Dulcha sacked and looted the country for nine months, and finally his army perished during the winter while recrossing the frontiers. Durng this very period Rincana, king of western Tibet, attacked Kashmir. He subsequently married Kota Rani, daughter of Ramachandra (Raina), the commander-in-chief (originally Surajvanshi Rajput from Nagarkot Kingdom, present day Kangra). 

Chak's first arrive in Kashmir from Dardic region under Lashkar Chak. Shah Mir arrives in 1313. With Shah Mir's help, who had taken the service of Suhadeva, Rincana occupied the throne of Kashmir.

In Ilkhanate-ruled Iran, Rashid-al-Din Hamadani (1247–1318), a Jewish convert to Islam writes Jāmiʿ al-tawārīkh, a history of the world for Ghazan, mongol Buddhist convert to Islam in 1295 at the hands of Sadr al-din hammuya (1246-1322). Ghazan is at war with his cousin Baidu, and to defeat him seeks help from Nawruz, an emir based out of Khorasan, who puts up the condition of conversion. At the time some nobles already are muslim. For chapter on Kashmir and Buddhism  Rashid-al-Din relies as source Kamalashri, a Kashmiri Buddhist Bikshu in Iran. After Iran empire turns to Islam, the Kashmiri Bikshu's asked to move back to Kashmir if they are not ready to really follow Islam. Nawruz ordered Buddhist and Nestorian Christian temples to be destroyed or converted to mosques. In game of court intrigues, Nawruz loses favor with Ghazan, his children killed and escapes to Herat, in northern Afghanistan where he is eventually executed in 1297. 

Rashid-al-Din is executed in 1318 on charge of poisoning Ilkhanid king Öljaitü. 

Jāmiʿ al-tawārīkh for its history of Mongol is later highly valued by Mughals and Akbar commissions an illustrated version.

152. Rincana (1320-1323 A.D.)

Rincana became a convert of Islam, and assumed the title of Sultan Sadruddin. Islamic faith received great impetus under him.

Kashmir got Bulbul Lankar and Khanqah. First royal mosque neat a Buddhist site neat Hawal Arampore. Srinagar known wholly known as Kashmir. The name Srinagar only reappears with the Sikh rule late. 

153. Udyanadeva (1323-1338 A.D.)

Brother of Simhadeva. Kashmir was attacked by Acala whom to use Jonaraja's words "the lord of Magadhapura had supplied with soldiers". The king fled but Shah Mir defended the kingdom successfully in his absence. The raja returned subsequently and reigned in Kashmir, but as a mere cypher, Shah Mir being all powerful. 

Lalla, the famous hermitess and poetess was born in 1335 A.D.

154. Kota Rani (1338-1339 A.D.)

She was the last Hindu sovereign of Kashmir. She was murdered by Shah Mir who established the sultanate with the title of Sultan Shamsuddin.

According to Tarikh-i- Sayid Ali (1569), Kota Rani had a brother named Ravan Raina (son of Ram Chandra! Possible wordplay by writer.). Ravan Raina had a son named Abdal Raina, a convert to Islam. Abdal Raina laid out Rajanakavatika, Garden of Rainas, the area now known as Rainawari.

Sultans in Kashmir

155. Shah Mir or Sultan Shams-ud-din I (1339-1342 A.D.)

Kota Rani murdered. Firm establishment of Muslim authority in both its religious and secular aspects.

Calendar changed from Laukika. Era begins with Rinchana's accession and used in State documents. Practice ends with Akbar and Mughals.

Jagadhara Bhatta wrote Stuti-Kusumanjali, one of the last great stotra written in Kashmir.

156. Sultan Ala-ud-din  or Alishah (1342-1354 A.D.)

Took the throne from brother Jamshed. Built Ala-ud-dinpoor. Budhagira (earlier known as Rinchinpora below Alikadal).

Lal Ded's Vakh flow.

157. Sultan Shihab-ud-din or Shirashtaka (1354-1373 A.D.)

Absolute reorganization of military set-up. Conquered Tibet Keshtwar and Jammu added to the Dominion of Kashmir. Defeated Jam of Sind (Jam Banahatiya ? ). Routed the Afghans at Peshawar. Subdued Kashgar, Badakshan and Kabul. Lore say's Shah Hamadan arrives from Persia in 1372 A.D. with 700 followers. Islamic faith receives great impetus under his patronage. 

Built Shihab-ud-dinpor (modern Shadipor).

Timur Gurkani (1336-1405), a Turco-Mongol conqueror arises from Uzbekistan and captures Khursan in 1370. Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, nephew of Simnani, leaves Iran, visits Kuttalan in Badakhshan and from there heads to Kashmir in 1379.  The version of Sufi ideals differ between teacher Simnani and student Hamadani. Simnani roots more for Islamic orthodoxy and puritan ideas as central to Sufi movement, while Hamadani believes in Wahadat-al-Wajud (Unity of Being).

Amrtadatta is a court poet of Shihab-ud-din and writes in Sanskrit. Only parts of his verse survive in anthology Subhāshitāvalī. 

158. Sultan Qutub-ud-din or Himda (1373-1389 A.D.)

Qutub-ud-din divorces one of his wives on advice of Shah Hamadan as both women are sisters. Qutub-ud-din organizes yaganas at time of famine and visits temple regularly (at Ala-ud-dinpoor). Shah Hamadan writes letter to Qutub-ud-din, overall not impressed with state of Islam in Kashmir. Qutub-ud-din not ready to change the ways of Hindus. King also known as Hinduka, one of the earliest mention of the term "Hindu' in Sanskrit work.  Not impressed with condition of Islam in Kashmir leaves for Turkestan in 1382 
He comes to Kashmir for the second time in around 1383 and the leaves for Transoxiana, dies and is buried in Kuttalan in 1384. 

Shruk of Shaikh Noor-ud-din flow (in primarily Sanskritised form. Persian form, as we now know evolves overtime). 

Sultan Firuz Tughluk of Delhi dies in 1388. 

On Qutbu'd-Din's death in the year 1389, his eldest son Sikandar ascended the throne; but as he was a minor, his mother Queen Sura acted as Regent. She ruled with a firm hand, and put to death her own daughter and son-in-law for conspiring against Sikandar. [Srikant Kaul, critical edition of JRT: Or the woman was daughter of minister Udda/Rai Magray and killed on the order of Queen Sura.  No reason given by Jonaraja. Sikandar's younger brother also poisoned by Udda. Sikandar later captures Udda and the minister commits suicide.]

Baha-ud-Din, founder of Naqshband Sufi order dies near Bukhara, Uzbekistan.

159. Sultan Sikandar Bhutshikan (1389-1413 A.D.)

Son of Shah Hamadan, Mir Muhammad Hamdani comes to Kashmir in 1393 (1402). Hindu monuments and libraries destroyed. Jeziya imposed. Forcible conversions under Prime minister Malik Saif-ud-din ("Sword of faith") mostly known by the name Suhabhatta, who was father-in-law of Mir Muhammad Hamadani. Timur invades India and sacks Delhi in 1398. Abolition of Sati. Sikandar married Meeran Devi/Meraj, daughter of ruler Piruja (Firuz) of Udabhandapur or Ohin.

Kashmir got Khankahi Mualla, an important mosque near 3rd bridge, Srinagar, in wooden style. Also, Jamma Masjid, the biggest mosque in Kashmir having 378 Deodar pillars carying from 25' to nearly 50' in height.

Later Tarikh-i Firishta of Muhammad Kasim Hindu Shah, Firishta (b. 1570) first to give Sikandar the title "Bhutshikan".

[Srikant Kaul, critical edition of JRT] Before his death Sikandar installs Mir Khan/Ali Shah, his son by his Muslim queen, Mera, on the throne and not eldest son Firuz, from Hindu queen Sobha]

Near But Kadal in Zadibal, Srinagar, is a 15th century monument known as 'Madin Sahib' named after the tomb and mosque of Sayyid Muhammad Madani who came to India with Timur in 1398 and moved to Kashmir during the reign of Sultan Sikandar Butshikan. The monument comprises of a Mosque and a Tomb, with the mosque dating back to around 1444 which first came up during the reign of Zain-ul-Abidin, incorporating elements, pillar and base, from an older Hindu monument.

Syed Hilal Naqshbandi (d.1457), disciple of Baha-ud-Din introduces Naqshbandi order in Kashmir but it spreads later only under Mughals. His disciple Sayid Amin dies in 1484 and buried at Alikadal.

160. Sultan Ali Shah or Miran Khan (1413-1420 A.D.)

Little Tibet lost to Kashmir. Death of Kabir in India in 1420 A.D. Malik Saif-ud-din dies of Tuberculosis, Jonaraja mocks his death using double entendre of "Great Brahmin".

Shahi Khan assassinates Hamsabhatta, brother of Malik Saif-ud-din, at Idgah on the day of Id-ul-Zuha to neutralize the challenge to the throne of Ali Shah. Ali Shah wishes to leave for Mecca, entrusts the throne to Shahi Khan. In Jammu, Ali Shah's father-in-law advises him to secure the thrown. Ali Shah arrives in Srinagar with forces from Jammu. Shahi Khan leaves the thrown and goes to Sialkot where he seeks help of Khokar tribemen to claim the throne. Khokars defeat forces of Ali Shah  and Shahi Khan placed on the throne. Civil war between brothers continues but Jonaraja silent. Ali Shah again arrives with forces from Jammu. Again defeated, this time at Uri. According to Haider Malik, he dies in Prison at Pakhli fort (now part of Hazara), but according to Srivara, Jasrat Khokar killed Ali Shah.

Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani's disciple and son-in-law Isaq-i Khuttalani declares his student Sayyid Muhammad-i Nurbakshi to be the Mahdi and begins a rebellion. It is put down by Timurid Shahrukh who has Khuttalani executed in 1423 (1413-25). Muhammad-i-Nurbaksh (d.1446) gives up the Mahdi claim proclaimed by his master and is pardoned. He becomes the leader of Hamadani-Kubrawi line of Sufis which comes to have great influence in Islamic era Kashmir.

161. Sultan Badshah or Zain-ul-abidin or Shahi Khan (1420-1470 A.D.)

Glorious reign in the history of Kashmir. First exponent of secularism as understood in modern terminology as employed in India. Even though a devout Muslim, the king himself attended Hindu shrines, performed sacrifices, built monasteries, and not only acquired a thorough knowledge of Sanskrit, but employed all his available time in the study of its sacred books. Altogether his reign was the Augustan era of Kashmiri-Sanskrit literature. Put Kashmir on the international map by giving strong impetus to the manufacture of paper, shawls, embroidered tapestry and woodcarving.

Fire arms first introduced during his reign. Promoted silk industry by inviting weavers from Kurasan.

Marries the two Jammu princesses. Manik Dev, the ruler of Jammu is maternal uncle to his eldest son Adham Khan.

Joan of Arc burnt at Rouen in France in 1431 A.D. Death of Sheik Nur-ud-Din Rishi, the Patron saint of Kashmir in 1438 A.D. Discovery of Cape Verde by the Portuguese in 1445 A.D. First printed books in 1446 A.D. Bahlul Lodi ascends the throne of Delhi in 1450 and founds the Lodi Dynasty, the first Afghan empire. Death of Mir Muhammad Hamdani at Khatlan in Turkistan the same year. War of the Roses in 1455 and the first newspaper in the world printed in Nuremberg in 1457. Baba Nanak born to Nankana Sahib in 1469 A.D. 

Mulla Ahmad wrote Bahr-ul-Asmar (Persian translation of Rajatarangini), Tarikh-i-Waga-i-Kashmir, Persian translation of Mahabharata (perhaps the first translation into Persian).

Hakim Mansur wrote Kifayahi-Mansuri, Mulla Nadiri wrote a Divan and history of Kashmir. U Ha Soma wrote Jaina-Carita. Jonaraja write Rajataranjini II (1150-1459). Srivara wrote Rajatarangini III (1459-1486) and Katha Kantuka (based on Jami's Yusuf-Zulaikha). Bhatta Avatara write Jaina-Vilasa. A Vaishnavite preacher (Ramanuja?) arrives in Kashmir from the south, does not get much followers. 

Halley's Comet seen over Kashmir in 1456 and recorded.

Kashmir got Zaina-kot, Zaina pattan, Zaina-Matha, Zaina-gir, Zaina-gam, Musoleum at Zaina Kadal, Zaina Kadal, Zaina Lank and Razdhani.

Himmat Raina, a progeny of Ramachandra Raina is a commander-in-chief of King Zaina. His brother Ahmed Raina is a wazir in the court. Jahangir Raina is son of Ahmed Raina, and from this line of Rainas came Sheikh Hamza Makhdoom, whose shrine is on Hari Parbat. 

Tilakacharya, last Buddhist minister during Zaina time. Helped in revival of non-muslims in Kashmir along with Shriya Bhatta. 

162. Sultan Haider Shah or Haji Khan (1470-1472 A.D.)

Internal fights for the throne. Adham Khan a challenger for Haji Khan. However, Adham Khan dies in Jammu fighting the Turks. Rise of Purna the Barbar, a favourite of the King. Liberal policies continue. But, Hindus who attacked Shah Hamadan shrine have their arms and legs cut and thrown in Jhelum to drown.

Srinagar gets Nau Kadal.

163. Sultan Hassan Shah (1472-1484 A.D.)

Great lover of music. There were 1200 musicians in his court.  According to Srivara at the birth-ceremony of Muhammad (AD 1478), the son of King Hassan Shah, "foreign" music was played using instruments like rabab.

Copernicus the astrologer born in 1473 at Thorn in Poland. Great fire in Srinagar in 1480. Inquisition established in Spain.

164. Sultan Muhammad Shah (1484-1486 A.D.)

Zain-ul-abidin had invited Sayyid family of Bayhaq from Delhi and given his daughter to the chief of the family Sayyid Nasir as bride, triggering power struggle between the Sayyids and Kashmiri chiefs after death of Hasan Shah. Sayyid Hasan Baihaqi becomes regent to his grandchild boy king Muhammad Shah who is only 7. Sayyid Hasan assassinated in 23 May 1484 along with 13 other of his family by Kashmiri Nobles with the help of Jammu (Madra) noble Parasurama, who had found refuge in Srinagar after threat of Tatar Khan Lodhi, who at the time was Governor of Lahore. Jonaraja provides a graphic description of the killing with a touch of sadness at the violence.

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu born at Navadvipa in Bengal in 1485 A.D.

165. Sultan Fateh Shah (1486-1493 A.D.)

Chaks a virulent people from Gilgit come to the forefront. "Discovery" of America by Christopher Columbus in 1492 A.D.

In 1492, Spain fully returns to Christians ending 700 years of Islamic rule. 

Aar166. Sultan Muhammad Shah (1493-1505 A.D.)

Great grand son of Ahmed Raina, Shaikh Hamza Makhduman important mystic of Kashmir born in 1494 A.D. 

Passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope discovered by Vasco da Gama and lands at Calicut on May 20th, 1498.

Prajnabhatta wrote Rajavalipataka (continuation of Rajatarangini 1486-1512 A.D.)

167. Sultan Fateh Shah (1505-1516 A.D.)

Deposed by Muhammad Shah for one year in 1514 A.D. The third bridge in Srinagar known as "Fath Kadal" built during this time. Alfonso de Albuquerque, Portuguese General conquers Goa in 1507.

Sultan Muhammad Shah (1516-1537 A.D.)

Deposed by Sultan Ibrahim Shah and Sultan Nazuk Shah during the years 1528 to 1530. Babar's army attacks Kashmir. Kamran with Humayun's consent attacks Kashmir. King of Kashgar sends his son Sultan Zada Sikander Khan accompanied by Mirza Haider Dughlat from Tibet through Lar to attack Kashmir. Desecration of sites and plunder on a vast scale. Babar's death in 1530 A.D. Ibrahim Lodi ascends the throne in 1517.

Shaikh Takub Sarfi writes Fafsir-Maslak-ul-Akhyar, Wamiq-u-Azjra, Laila-Majnum, Maghazin-Nabi, Maqamat-i-Murshid.

[Satoshi Ogura] The battles for secession between the royals last for about 50 years and ends with death of Muhammad Shah. Nurbakshia (at the time Shia order) missionary Mir Sams al-din Araqi (d. 1526) arrives in Shahmir Court in 1493 as embassy of Sultan Husayn Mirza (1469-1506). More Hindu temples and practices destroyed by him. Anti-Nurbakshia movement starts among Sunnis majority Kashmir nobles. From end of 15th century to the first half of 16th century, there are 3 layers of antagonism: Muhammand Shah and Fateh Shah, between Sayyids and local chiefs, and between Nurbakshiya and the anti-Nurbakshia faction. Real power with Margays, Chaks and Rainas.

Tyranny of Malik Musa Raina, (formerly Soma Chandra, who becomes a follower of Araqi) on Hindu subjects. Zadibal Shrine of Araqi comes up. 

168. Sultan Shamsuddin II (1537-38 A.D.)

Baba Nanak dies at Kartarpur in 1539, now known as Dera Baba Nanak. First memoirs of Guru Nanak composed by Guru Angad. Gurmukhī alphabet arrives out of Sharda alphabet.

 169. Sultan Ismail Shah I (1538-39 A.D.)

Flight of Humayun in 1540. Cromwell beheaded.

170. Sultan Ibrahim Shah II (1539-1540 A.D.) 

Son of Muhammad Shah

171. Sultan Nazuk Shah (1540-1551 A.D.) 

Son of Fateh Shah. 

The country actually run for 10 years by Mirza Haider Dughlat who was ruling in the name of Humayun. Persecution of Shias. Akbar born at Amarkot in 1542. Tulsidas commences his Ramayan in 1547. Cervantes born in the same year.

Vallabhadeva writes Padyavali [? Vallabhadeva also placed in 10th century as writer of Subhāshitāvalī, or "Series of Fine Sayings," contains some 3500 stanzas taken from about 350 poets. He also wrote a commentary on Raghuvansha by Kalidasa ].

 Mirza Haider Dughlat writes Tarikh-i-Rashidi. Indian Islamic scholars pass fatwa against Araqi's Noorbakshi order. Chaks are Noorbakshi. 

Kazak Dughlat died fighting in 1550 and is buried in Gorstan e Shahi in Srinagar.

172. Sultan Ismail Shah II (1551-1554 A.D.)

Michael Servitus burnt for "the crime of honest thought" in 1553.

173. Sultan Habib Shah (1554-1555 A.D.)

Last of the Shah Mirs who had established the Sultanate in 1339 A.D., after murdering Kota Rani. Crown taken off Habib Shah's in an open court and rulership passed on to Chaks, a tribe from Gilgit who were  converts to Shia faith.

Srinagar got 2nd Bridge that later got known as Habba Kadal.

Chaks in Kashmir

174. Ghazi Shah Chak (1555-1563 A.D.)

Reconquered Skardu, Gilgit, Kistawar, Pakhli and Mougli which had fallen off from the kingdom. Humayun dies in 1556 and Akbar succeeds to the throne. Tan Sen in Akbar's counrt. Francis Bacon born in 1561 A.D.

175. Husain Shah Chak (1563-1570 A.D.)

Akbar sends personal emissaries to Kashmir led by Mirza Muhammad Muqim. Shakespeare born in 1564. Church of England founded. Jahangir born in 1569.

176. Ali Shah Chak (1570-1579 A.D.)

Strikes coin in the name of Akbar thus accepting his suzerainty. Terrible famine in 1576 which lasted for 3 years. Ramayana of Tulsidas completed in 1572 A.D. Thomas Stevens in India in 1579.

177. Yusuf Shah Chak (1579-1586 A.D., in three terms)

Lost his throne during this period. He was first over overthrown by Abdal Chak and then reinstated by Akbar. 

Chaks extern Hamza Makhdoom to Sialkot. His disciple Baba Daud Khaki and followers goto Multan, while Shaikh Yakub Sarfi and other chiefs go to Akbar's court and ask him to put an end to Chak rule. In 1585, Akbar's half-sibling and arch enemy Mirza Muhammad Hakim  dies in Kabul. Akbar sees opportunity for expanding his empire to North of Hindustan. Yusuf Shah concludes a treaty with Mughal army in 1586.

Akbar invades Kashmir and takes possession of the kingdom . Yusuf Shah taken to Bihar contrary to the promise given to him (worked for Mughals, died in 1592).  Guru Arjun Dev compiles the Adi Granth in 1591. Din-liahi proclaimed in 1582. 

Later Kashmiri writers tell us it is during this time Habba Khatoon wrote her love songs. None of the contemporary accounts of History at the time mention Habba Khatoon. She is first written about after 200 years. Kashmiri Language starts taking a familiar shape.

Syed Nimatullah Shah Qadri (d.1582.A.D) arrives from Wester Central Asia and introduced Qadri Sufi order to Kashmir. 

Syed Mubarak Khan (1580 A.D. -(six months and two days))

Lohar Shah (1580-1581 A.D. )

Yusuf Shah (1581-1585 A.D.)
Yakub Shah (1585- 1586 A.D.)

Hamza Makhdoom's final will partly in Sharda script. 

Moguls in Kashmir

178. Akbar (1586-1605 A.D.)

First visit of Akbar to Kashmir in 1589 - Faizi accompanies him and composes the Qasida on Kashmir - also Urfi Shirazi. Second visit of the Emperor in 1592 accompanied by Nizam-ud-Din, the author of Tabaqat-i-Akbari. Shaikh Yaqubsarfi dies in 1594. In the same year Akbar asks 'Abdul Qadir Badayuni' to rewrite Bahr-ul-Asmar (Sea of Stories) of Mulla Ahmad's [Mullā Shāh Muḥammad Shāhābādī] translation of the Rajatarangini. Famine in Kashmir in 1596. Third visit of Akbar in 1597. Defeat of Spanish Armada in 1588. Char Minar built in Hyderabad in 1591. Death of Montaigne the French essayist in 1592. East India Company formed in 1600. Shakespeare's Hamlet composed in 1602. Tobacco introduced into Mogul Empire in 1604.

Wall round Hari Parbat built ostensibly as a relief measure for famine of 1597-98.  Foundation of Nagar-Nagar Fort laid on the Hari Parbat. Inscription on the wall mentions "begar" not used for construction. 
Nasim Bagh laid.

Jesuits visit Kashmir. First westerners in Kashmir.

Khwaja Khawand Mahmud (d1642), arrives in Kashmir and promotes Naqshband Order on bigger scale.  


Mirza Kasim Khan (1586-1587 A.D.)
Syed Yusuf Khan (1587-1590 A.D.)
Mohamad Qulich (Kilbeh) Khan (1590-1601 A.D.)  Removed from office after complaint by Hindus. According to Pandit Suka's Rajatarangini, the fort city came up at the time as till them Mughal soldiers were living in civilian areas and casuing much trouble. The walled city was a solution. In charge of the creation of wall was a man named Kamal Kant. Kant, were later going to convert and rise in power with vast Jagirs.

Mirza Ali Khan (1601-1606 A.D.)

179. Jahangir (1605-1627 A.D.)

Visits Kashmir eight times. Kistawar conquered in 1620 (even though in local lore people of region remember Akbar with respect). Plague in Kashmir. Gunpowder plot in 1605 to frighten James I. Death of Mazhari, the poet, in Srinagar. Milton born in 1608. British factory established at Surat in 1613 by permission of Jajangir. Birth of Mulla Mushin Fari in 1615. Cervantes writes his Don Quixote in the same year. Bacon's Novum Organum in 1620. Death of Tulsidas in 1624. Sivaji born in 1627.

Intihab-i-Tarikh-i-Kasmir,  a concise Persian translation of Rajatarangini ordered by Jahangir, written anonymously, alluded by Bernier that goes on to be source of Haider Malik Cadura Tarikh-i-Kashmir. Haider Malik was instumental in killing of Sher Afghan, the first husband of Nurjahan.

In 1618, Muḥammad Ḥusayn does translation of the Rajatarangini in Persian.

Syed Muhammad Mahdi (?anonymous ) writes Baharistan-i-Shahi (History of Kashmir from earlier times to 1614 A.D. the year it was completed). Haider Malik Cadura writes Tarikh-i-Kashmir (written in 1617-20 or 1620-21). Sahib Kaul writes Krishna-Avatara and Janma-Carita.

Kashmir gets Pathar Masjid, Shalimar Garden, Acchabal Garden and Verinag Arcade. Serais in Jammu and restoration of Jama Masjid.

Jahangir visits Anadh Nag and tells story of blind fish of the spring. He also visits other Nags of the Anantnag region like Lok Bhawan and Macchi Bhawan. According to him, the garden around the Macchi Bhawan spring and temple was developed by Rajput Mansabdar  of Mughals Ram Das Kachhwaha. The springs in the area were developed by these Mansabdars. This went on to be the the prototype on which Verinag garden (which was named Shahbad by Noorjahan) was built. 


Nawab Kulbeh Khan (1606-09 A.D.)
Hasham Khan (1609-1612 A.D.)
Safdar Khan (1612-1615 A.D.)
Ahmad Begh Khan (1615-1618 A.D.) [Tyrant]
Dilawar Khan (1618-1620 A.D.)
Iradat Khan (1620-1622 A.D.) //Chaks finally finished off in Kashmir under his rule. Abdal the chief of Baltistan, a Nurbakshi, providing support to Habib Khan Chak and Ahamad Khan Chak was the trigger.

Itikhad Khan (1622-1633 A.D.)
Revives the "begaar" methods of Shihab-ud-din era (1354-1373 A.D.) Villagers are dragged to collect saffron. 

180. Shah Jehan (1628-1657 A.D.)

Kashmir becomes Mughal garden.

Kashmir gets Nishat Bagh, laid out by Asafkhan, Prime Minister and father-in-law of Shah Jehan. Chasma  Shahi. Bagh-i-Glahi laid out near Bacchapor just a mile up Nasim. Akhun Mulla Shah's mosque near Hari Parbat under the supervision of Dara Shukuh. Completion of Verinag Arcade. Bridge over Jhelum at Bijibehara built under the supervision of Dara. He also lays a garden at Bijibehara and the observatory at Pari Mahal.

Mulla Tahir Ghani, one of the greatest persian poets of Kashmir is born in 1630 A.D. Building of Taj Mahal begun in 1631. Philosopher Spinoza born in 1632. Building of Red Fort begun in 1638 A.D. The English occupy Hughli in 1640 A.D. Newton born in 1642 A.D. Dara Shukuh writes Risalah-i-Haqq-numa in 1646 A.D. while in Kashmir. English factory at Hughli founded. Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur in 1656.

Mulla Muhsin Fani writes Dabastani Mazahib (a very important work on comparative religions). Rupa Bhawani offers philosophical musings.

Avatara, grandfather of Ratankantha, writes Isvarasataka (c. 1625 A.D.) Now in Kashmir archive.

Sahib Kaul (1642-1667) writes Devinamavilasa and many other works, briefly reviving the strota devotional tradition of Kashmir. 

Rajanaka Ratnakantha (1658/1677) scholar copyist among other things, copies a bitch bark version of Kalhana's Rajatarangini. His copy having complete 8 canto later becomes one of the primary source for Stein's translation of the work. Now in Bodleian archives.

Muhammad Saleh Kamboh (d.1675), biographer of Shah Jahan and teacher of Aurangzeb, writes about destruction of temples of Anantnag by Shah Jahan. In early Mughal records, the pargana is known as "Inchh" after the village of that name having a Spring.

Shah Jahan summons Khwaja Khawand Mahmud in year 1636 to Delhi due to Shia-Sunni conflict and banned his entry to Srinagar. He spends his last days in Lahore and dies there.

After Khawja Khawand Mahmood’s death in 1640 in Lahore, his son Khawaja Moin-Ud-Din Naqshbandi comes to Kashmir and takes over the order in Kashmir. He dies in 1674 and at Ziyarat Naqshband Sahab, Nowhatta. 

Zaffar Khan (1633-1640 A.D.)

A Mughal nobel, Sadiq Khan lays out a garden by the shore of Dal called Bagh-i-Sadiq Khan. The place that later came to be known as Hazrat Bal

Murad Baksh (1640-1641 A.D.)
Nawab Ali Mardan Khan (1641-1642 A.D.)

Zaffar Khan (1642-1646 A.D.) Abolishes taxes on saffron, wood and poll-tax on sheep and boatmen.

Tarbait Khan (1646-1648 A.D.)
Hassan begh Khan  (1648-1650 A.D.)
Ali Mardan Khan 1650-1657 A.D.)  fantastical tales told about him (philosopher's stone/snake woman/Shiva/ etc.) Builds serais on Pir Panjal route and the road from Kashmir to Rajouri. A religious fanatic named Khwaja Mam sets fire to pandit Mahadev's house and killed many pandits.

Zamindar Dars of Shahabad pargana come to prominence. Under Mardan Khan, one Ibadullah Dar is given a jagir as large as about 30000 lakh Karwars.

Lashkar Khan (1657-1659 A.D.)

It was during Shah Jahan that the practice of marriage between Hindus and Muslims was restricted.  Earlier, the upper clas (Rajputs?) of Hindus and Muslims continued their practice of marriage based on clan rules. So a Hindu could take a Muslim wife and a Muslim could take a Hindu wife. A Hindu woman married to a muslim was buried post death while a Muslim girl married to a Hindu was burnt after death.  Shah Jahan decreed it to be un-islamic. He ordered that Hindus who had married Muslims woman, either renounce their faith or leave their Muslims wives. What followed:  Zamidar Jagu accepted Islam and became Raja Daulatmand. [M.R. Qanugo, Journal of Indian History, 1929]

Shah Jahan's farman inscribed at Jama Masjid regarding "begaar" mentions, "jagirdars in Kashmir are at liberty to collect the saffron they way they liked". Essentially, jagirdar was free to do with cultivators as he pleased. 

181. Aurangzeb (1658-1707 A.D.)

Fire-Famine-Earthquake and floods in Kashmir. The ancestors of Muhammad Iqbal, Saprus, embrace Islam. Royal Society of England founded in 1660. Dara Shukuh executed the same year. Acquisition of Bombay by the English from Portugal in 1662 as dowry. French East India Co., established in 1644. Aurangzeb's first visit to Kashmir in 1665. Bernier accompanies him. Ghani dies in 1668. Mulla Muhsin dies in 1671. Guru Gobind Singh born in 1676. Revolution in England in 1688. Voltaire born in 1694. Guru Gobind Singh founds the Khalsa in 1695. Khwaja Nur-ud-Din Ishbari brought the sacred hairs of the Prophet from Bijapur which led to the construction of shrine at Hazrat Bal.

Ghani wrote Dewan-i-Ghani and Ratnakhantha wrote Kusumanjali-Tika.

In 1666, first Kashmiri trader colony in Lhasa, Tibet. A ruler of Tiber, mentioned in Persian chronicles as Daldal Namjal converts to Islam, mints coins in the name of Aurangzeb. When Black Qalmaqs invade Tibet, Daldal asks emperor for help. Emperor sends Imperial force from Kabul under Fidai Khan (son of Kashmir governor Ibrahim Khan).

In 1662, the marriage treaty of Charles II of England and Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, places Bombay in possession of the British Empire, as part of dowry of Catherine to Charles.

George Foster visits Kashmir in 1783 and mentions that the emperor extracts a hefty revenue of 3 and a half lakh from Kashmir, while the governor was extracting 20 lakh.


Itimad Khan (1659-1622 A.D.)
Ibrahim Khan (1622-1633 A.D.)
Islam Khan (1663-1664 A.D.) Islamabad named after him.
Saif Khan (1644-67 A.D.) Introduced new ways for taxing. Started actual measurement of lands for taxes.
Mubariz Khan (1667-68 A.D.)
Saif Khan (1668-71 A.D.) in second term went about promoting agriculture and building new towns.
Iftikhar Khan (1671-75 A.D.) Tyrant.

"sar-i-khud dadam magar sir-i-khuda na dadam."

On 24 November 1675, Sikh guru Tegh Bahadur killed by Aurangzeb. Guru Khalsa Twarikh of Bhai gyan Singh Gyani and Suraj Prakash of Bhai Santosh Singh Gyani (written during time of Maharaja Ranjit Singh) records the famous tale of 500 Kashmiri Brahmins arriving in Anandpur to seek help from the Guru. Brahmins had gone to Amarnath to seek help from God, and someone in dream was told to seek the Guru.  

Quam-ud-din (1675-78 A.D.)
Mirza Salim, brother of Khalifa Wazir Shah of Iran (friend of Shah Abbas II, 7th Safavid king) visits Kashmir and buys land around Idgah Srinagar and builds residential houses and garden on it. He later gives it to one Abdul Majid. 

Ibrahim Khan (1678-86 A.D.)
Hafiz Ullah Khan (1686-90 A.D)
Muzaffar Khan (1690-92 A.D.) tyrant who had uzbek retainers for doing the dirty work
Abu Nasar Khan (1692-98 A.D.)
Fazil Khan (1689-1701 A.D.) Built gardens, schools, mosques, serais etc. Kashmiris brought into administrative services. Abolishes taxes on earthen jars, salt, bird catchers.

Holy relic of Prophet Mohammad’s hair brought to Kashmir in 1699. It was first kept at Ziyarat Naqshband Sahab, Nowhatta. Later moved to Sadiq Khan's Bagh and comes to be known as Hazrat Bal.

Ibrahim Khan (1701-1706 A.D.) Shia-Sunni riots of 1684. Hasanabad quarters of Shia burnt down.
Nawazish Khan (1706-08 A.D.)

Kashmir experiences earthquakes in 1669 and 81. Major fires in Srinagar in 1672 and 78. Flood in 1682. Famine in 1688.

182. Later Moghuls (1707-1752 A.D.)

Pandit Raj Kaul, a Sanskrit and Persian scholar migrates to India in 1716 under the instructions of Farrukh Siyar - this family became Nehru family. 

[Contrary to the popular claim by Kashmiri Pandits that they are all Saraswat Brahmins, Kashmiri Brahmins actually belong to six kind of origins: Sārasvatas, Maithilas, Kānyakubjas, Drāvidas, Gaudas, and Gurjaras.  The Gotra of Kauls - Dattātreya Gotra - places them in Maithilas, Brahmins  of Mithila in Bihar (*Sanderson)]

Unsettled conditions in Kashmir. Famine due to excessive rain 1724. German Philosopher Kant born in the same year. 

Narayan Kaul writes Muntakhaba-ul-Tawarikh. Khwaja Muhammad A'zam Mustaghni Kaul Didamari writes Waquiat-i-Kashmir (also known as Tarikh-i-Azami), Sharh-i-Kibri-Ashjar and Tajribat-ul-Talibin.

1720 sees rioting and mini-rebellion in Kashmir over Jazia tax and other restrictions on Hindus and Shias. Mughal court right from the time of Farrukh Siyar keeps applying the tax and then removing it, both acts under pressure from different quarters. In 1719 during the time of Muhammad Shah, Jazia is abolished. Mughal court is not as powerful as it was and has seen one emperor after another in quick succession. In Kashmir, a Sunni Jagirdar named Mahbub Khan (also known as Abdun Nabi Kashmiri/Mullah Abdun Nabi Muhtavi Khan) sees an opportunity to seize power of Kashmir. Mahbub Khan was appointed chief theologian of Kashmir by Emperor Bahadur Shah.  He makes Jazia his rallying cry and seizes power from Mughal Deputy Subedar Mir Ahmed Khan and using support of masses and Kazis/clerics decrees that non-Muslims should not ride horses, should not put turbans, coats, armors, should not go to parks and gardens for excursions, and should not bath on certain days. Mughal officials in Kashmir refuse to comply as Emperor Muhammad Shah has already abolished Jazia and offered Zimmi status to non-Muslims. In response Abdun Nabi Kashmiri and his men start harassing and violating Hindu life and property. Mughal representatives are helpless as their troops are defeated by Abdun Nabi Kashmiri's men but then Shias get involved in the affair as Abdun Nabi's violence is against all those he considers non-Muslims. In the end, Abdun Nabi Kashmiri dies at the hand of Shias who managed to corner and kill him along with his two sons through deception on 12 September, 1720. This leads to Shia-Sunni riots as Zadibal is burnt down by third son of Abdun Nabi, Mulla Sharaf-ud-din and general Sunni masses. The riots end with Delhi sending fresh reinforcement in 1721 under Abdus Samad Khan. Delhi must have been worried to have sent the man who captured Khalsa rebel warrior Banda Singh Bahadur in Punjab in 1715. To put end to rioting Mughal forces kill Sharaf-ud-din and publicly hang 50 ringleaders of the rioting gangs.

In around 1722, one Ragho Ram Koul converts to Islam at the hands of Mir Abdul Rashid Baihiqi and changes name to Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah. He is the ancestor of Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah. 

During time of Dil Diler Khan [1735-1738 A.D], one Abdul Barakh Khan at war his his official. Both parties set fire to Srinagar, 20000 house burn. 

Oliver Goldsmith born in 1728. Nadir Shah sacks Delhi in 1738. 

In 1739, Fakhr-ud-daula, a Mughal subadar of Kashmir is retired to Lahore where he conspires to recapture the administration of Kashmir with the help of Nadir Shah. Using Nadir Shah's troops he captures Kashmir and starts governing it. He stuck coins in the name of Nadir Shah. But, after after 40 days Mughals again manage to regain control after fight put up by Mughals under Abul Barkat Khan and Ati Ullah Khan (1739-1741). 15000 houses burn in Srinagar areas during conflict. 

1747, Nadir Shah is assasinated. In sleep, he is attacked by 15 men. He kills 2 before he dies. Ahmad Shah Durrani/Abdali takes over. Kashmir is now within Afghan reach. 

Goethe born in 1749. End of Moghul rule in valley in 1752 A.D. It is said they left 770 gardens in Kashmir.

 [R.K Parimu, citing Khafi Khan's Muntakhab -ul-Lubab (1874) and Khwaja Muhammad A'zam Mustaghni Kaul Didamari's Waquiat-i-Kashmir. Another source: "The History of India, as told by its own historians (1867-77)" by Elliot and Dowson]

Governors under Shah Alam (1707-12)

Jaffar Khan (1708-09)
Ibrahim Khan (1709-09)
Nawazish Khan (1709-11)
Inayat-ullah Khan (1711-12)

Governors under Farrukh Siyar (1713-19 A.D)

Ali Mohamed Khan (1712-14)
Aziz Khan (1714-15)
Ali Mohamed Khan (1715-16)
Ahtram Khan (1716-16)
Inayat Ullah Khan (1716-20)

Abdul Samad Khan (1720-23)
Azim Khan Bahadur (1723-24)
Saadat Khan Bahadur (1712-16)

Governor under Mohamed Shah (1719-48)
Inayat Ullah Khan (1724-25)
Akidat Khan (1725-27)
Aghar Khan (1727-28)
Amir Khan (1728-35)
Dil Diler Khan (1735-38)
Fakhur-ul-Dwala (1738-39)
Ataya Ullah Khan (1739-41)
Asad Baz Khan (1741-45)
Abu-ul-Mansoor Khan (1745-48)

Governor under Ahmed Shah (1748-54)

Abdul Mansoor Khan (1748-53)
Ali Kuli Khan (1753-1753)

Afghans in Kashmir
Sovereignty exercised through Governors 

183. Ahmad Shah Durrani (1752-1772 A.D.)

Mir Muqim Kanth and Khwaja Zahir Dedamari, two Kashmiri nobles invite Ahmad Shah Durrani to take over Kashmir. Mir Muqim Kanth was naibsubadar of Kashmir and at war with Abul Qasim Khan. After defeat at hands of Khan, Kanth wrote to Abdali for help. Abdali sent 15000 force, took money from Abul Qasim Khan, delayed attack, and then took over Kashmir. 

The institution of "chief revenue farmers" came up during afghan time. The revenue farmers were bound by contract to extract fixed revenue no matter what. Next few centuries were shaped by the economic of it and the social impact of it.

The Afghans ruled Kashmir for 67 years which witnessed the rule of four pathan emperors at the Imperial court and around 26 governors in the province of Kashmir. 

Famine due to excessive rain in 1752. Floods in Kashmir in 1770. Sukh Jawan Mal, a patron of literary men, and Amir Sher Jawan as Governors during this period. Black hole of Calcutta in 1756. Battle of Plassey in 1757. Defeat of the Marathas at Panipat by Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1761. Clive obtains the Divani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa from the Mogul Emperor in 1765. Napoleon Bonaparte born in 1769.

Mukkalal Muhammad Taufiq writes Shah-nama-i-Kashmir. Abdul Wahhab Shaiq writes versified history of Kashmir. Mirza Muhatshani Khan Fida writes poetic verses.

Kashmir gets Shergarhi palace.

Name of Governors:

Abu-illah Khan

Ishaq Khan

Abu-llah Khan 

Sukhjiwan Mal (1754, was governor for eight and a half years). [Abdul Hasan Bandey was his minister.] 

Noor-ud Din Khan Bamzai
Buland Khan
Noor-ud- Din Khan (1768-69)
Lal Mohammad Khan  (1770) [Persecutor of Hindus]
Khuram Khan (1770-71)

Kailash Dhar, first Kashmiri Pandit to be given high post of sahibkar

Amir Khan (1770-72)
Jawan Sher (1770-72)

184. Timur Shah (1772-1793 A.D.)

Haji Karimdad Khan, Azad Khan and Mir Dad Khan as Governors. Warren Hastings becomes Governor General of India in 1774. Birth of Ram Mohan Roy in the same year. American Revolutionary War and Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Birth of Ranjit Singh in 1780. Sir William Jones draws the attention of Orientalists to Mulla Muhsin Fani's Dabastan-i-Mazahibin in 1789. 1789 French Revolution commences. Uranium discovered in the same year but not isolated till 1840. Parmanand, Kashmiri pot born at Matan in 1791. Birth of Maharaja Gulab Singh in 1792.

Mir Sadullah Shahabadi writes Bagh-i-Sulaiman. Mullah Hidayatullah Mattu writes Takmila-i-Tarikh-A'zami. Mufti Mohammed Sudrud Din Wafac writes a Masnavi and Tuhfat-ul-usshuq. Mir Abdulla Baihaqi writes poetic verses.

Kashmir gets Amira Kadal Bridge.

Name of Governors:

Haji Karimdad Khan (1776-83)

Dagshawl institution for taxation of Shawl industry was first introduced by Pathan Governor Karim Dad Khan. Soon after Shawl workers started migrating to Punjab in around 1810.

Kant family punished by him for intriguing against him with Raja Ranjit Dev of Jammu (who is working on making Jammu a new cosmopolitan)

Dila Ram Kuli appointed Dewan.

Azad Khan [1782-85] invades Poonch. Breaks allegiance with Taimur Shah. Declares Sultan of Turkey as his sovereign.  Declares himself "Second Nadir Shah". At first wins against forces of Taimur Shah. But eventually flees to Poonch and commits suicide. People forced into labor for his whimsical projects like converting Maisuma into a lake by constructing a weir at Athwajan.   

20000 people die due to Cholera 

Madad Khan [1785-86]

Mir Dad Khan Alakza [1786-88]

Timur Shah ask for greater revenue. Only Mir Dad Khan able to do it. He is a harsh man. Pandit Dila Ram Quli rises to be dewan. He supports Mir Dad Khan in the task. Dila Ram supports Hafiz Kamal, an anti-Sunni. Mulla Habib is chief Qazi. Tensions rise in city as Jama Masjid and Khanqah Maula are closed in protest againt Quli. Sunni mobs decends upon Quli and beat him up. He survives. Mir Jafar Kanth is the instigator and imprisoned. 

Mullah Gaffar Khan [stays for few months]

as first act, Mir Jafar Kanth is released. 

Juma Khan Alakzai (1988)

Juma Khan is summoned to Kabul by Taimur Shah, places his son Muhabbat Khan in-charge. He takes Quli with him. Shias build new mosques at Zadibal and Hassanabad, and perform muharram. Sunnis are enraged, Muhabbat Khan sides with Sunnis, destroys the buildings. Sunni Mobs are empowered, ant-Shia riots start. Juma Khan returns and peace is restored. Juma Khan attacks Bomba chief.

185. Zaman Shah (1793-1801 A.D.)

Abdullah Khan Akozai as Governor of Kashmir. Shias and Sunnis riot. Mirza Ghalib born at Agra in 1796. Kashmiri shawls become popular in France in 1798. Ranjit Singh becomes master of Lahore by receiving the title of Raja from Zaman Shah.

Arnimal (Mrs. Bhawani Das Kachru) sings.

Name of Governors:

Rahmatullah Khan
Mir Hazar Khan [1793-94]

Pandit Nand Ram Tiku, becomes Prime Minister of Kabul.

Rehmatullah Khan
Kifayat Khan

186. Mahmud Shah Shuja-ul-Mulk (1801-1819 A.D.)

Ata Muhammad Khan, Muhammad Azim Khan as Governors of Kashmir. First English translation of 'Dabistan-i-Mazahib' by Francis Gladwin in 1809. German translation of the same book by Dalberg. Charles Darwin born in 1809.

In 1812, Shah Shuja is captured by Jahandar Khan, the Governor of Attack and handed over to his brother Atta Muhammad, Governor of Kashmir. Wafa Begum, senior wife of Shah Shuja takes shelter with Maharaja Ranjit Singh at Lahore. Maharaja promises safe return of Shah Shuja in exchange for Koh-i-Noor diamond.

Ranjit Singh forges alliance of common interest with Kabul Wazir Fateh Khan who wanted to oust Ata Mohammad Khan, the Afghan self-declared ruler of Kashmir. Fateh Khan promises him 8 lakh payable from the revenue of Kashmir annually. Ranjit Singh attempts to get Kashmir first in 1812 (then again in 1814 and finally in 1819) but fails as Fateh Khan did not keep his end of the bargain. The campaign cost Ranjit Singh Rs. 6,70,000 and many lives. But, he succeeds in releasing Shah Shuja and obtains the Kuh-i-Nur diamond in 1813. Sikh forces get better acquainted with the terrain and climate of Kashmir.

Stephenson's Locomotive in the same year. Cylon becomes a dependency of British Crown in 1815. First Cotton Mills in India in 1818. Karl Marx, the father of communism born in 1817. Ranjit Singh attacks Kashmir in 1819 (with valuable help coming from Agar Khan, Raja of Rajauri). Muslim rule in the valley established in 1339 A.D. comes to an end in 1819.

Ata Muhammad Khan builds bridge at Baramulla. 

Ganga Prasad writes Samsar Maya, Mohajal Sukh Dukh and a Carita. 

Name of Governors:

Muhammad Khan Abdullah Khan Alakzai
Atta Muhammad Khan
Wazir Shah Muhammad (1806-13)
Wazir Fateh Muhammad (1813)
Sardar Muhammad Azim (1813-1819)
Jabbar Khan (1819)

In the June 1819 battle, Ranjit Singh took position at Shahbad in Punjab from where supplies and reinforcements were sent for the battle. Jabbar Khan was camped at Poonch. Mir Mohammad Khan, Kotwal of Poonch submitted to Sikhs as did Kotwal of Supiyon Mohammad Ali.  However Jabbar Khan's 5000 Afghan men fought Sikhs in the plains of Shupion. Initially, Afghans managed to capture two guns of the Sikhs but famous sikh warrior Akali Phoola Singh proved too powerful for them. Afghans were soundly defeated on July 15, 1819 and wounded Jabbar Khan fled to Srinagar and then through Bhimber went to Peshawar. By 1833, Jabbar Khan was trying to outplay his step brother Dost Muhammad Khan (younger brother of Fateh Shah and brother-in-law of Shahsuja) in war for Kabul throne. Jabbar Khan was now a great friend of westerners. And his son even learnt English. In 1885, Dost Khan lost Peshawar to Sikhs. By, 1837 the Dost Khan and other Afghan along with Jabbar Khan and other Afghan lords were preparing to fight Sikhs over their occupation of Afghan lands. Even though Afghans had extracted lot of revenue from Kashmir over the decades, they now didn't have enough money to fight the Sikhs and had fallen to extracting exuberant levies from their own subjects. And the Sikhs now had Kashmir while British were rolling the first dice in the Great Game.

Russia helped liberate Germany in 1812–15 in the Napoleonic Wars. 

Sikhs in Kashmir
Sovereignty exercised through Governors

187. Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1819-1839 A.D.)

Diwan Moti Ram, first Sikh Governor of Kashmir. Ruskin born in 1819. A British man accidentally discovers Ajanta caves. G.T. Vigne (1935), Moorcraft and Hugel visit Kashmir.

A small fort built at Uri. Fort of Nalouchi at Muzzafarabad, Gurudwara at Mattan. Kathi Darwaza. All built under supervision of Hari Singh Nalwa.

Birbal Kachru writes Mukhtasar-ul-Tawarikh. Parmananda writes Sudama Carita, Rasha Svayamvar and Siva-Lagna.

"All the people I send into Kashmir turn out haramzada; there is too much pleasure and enjoyment in that country" ~ Maharaja Ranjit Singh to Sir Alexander Burnes of the East India Company.

1830 Zadibal riots between Shia-Sunni, about 200-300 Persian traders leave Kashmir for Iran.

187. Maharaja Kharak Singh (1839-1840 A.D.)
188. Maharaja Sher Singh (1841-1843 A.D.)
189. Maharaja Dalip Singh (1843-1846 A.D.)

Unsteady rule in Kashmir during Sikh period. Ten governors rule Kashmir during a period of seven years from 1839-1846. The best of them were Colonel Mehan Singh Kumedan and Shaikh Ghulam Muhyid Din.

Lord Hardinge has decided to cut Sikh empire. Under the Treaty of Amritsar, Kashmir passed on to Maharaja Gulab Singh in 1846 A.D. 

Sheikh Imam-u-Din, former Sikh governor puts up resistance in Kashmir.  Son of a shoemaker [or not, or called so degradingly by Kashmiris for the Sheikh title in his name?] who rose to be a governor under  Sikh rule, Shiekh Imamudin had been taxing Kashmiris just as bad as most Sikh governors. He was acting on the written instructions of Raja Lal Singh, Wazir of Lahore, who considered himself to be a contender for Sikh empire. Sheikh Imam-u-Din relied on Jehlum valley's Bomba soldiers to defeat Dogra soldiers at Hari Parbat. No, Kashmiri fought on either side. Calcutta weekly of the time mentions that Kashmiris understood no matter who wins, Kashmiris will still lose. After defeat, Gulab Singh asks Sir Henry Lawrence for help. With combined forces of British, Sikh and Dogra, Imam-u-Din surrenders and blames everything on Lal Singh.

Under Sheikh Imam-u-Din's rule, in 1841, Pandit Zama Bhat of Miasuma Srinagar converts to Islam. He is ancestor of Mohammad Anwar Shopiani (1849–1939) founder of Ahle-hadith (Salafi) Wahhabi movement in Kashmir that derides shrine worhip.

William Carpenter visits and paints Kashmir. 

Sikhs ruled for about 25 years. 

Dogras in Kashmir

190. Maharaja Gulab Singh (1846-1857 A.D.)

Lord Hardinge visits the valley in 1844. Punch, Ramnagar, Bhadrawah, Kishtawar, Bhimbar, Rajowri, Skardu added to the dominion of Jammu & Kashmir by Gulab Singh. Baltistan subdued. The Trigonometrical Survey and first map of Kashmir during 1855-63.

Mirza Saif-ud-din Beg wrote Khulasat-ul-Tawarikh. Mulla Muhammad Khalil Mirjanpuri wrote Tarikh-i-Kashmir. Mir Azizullah Qalandhar wrote Tarikh-i-Kashmir. Muhamud Gami wrote Yusuf Zulaikha, Laila-wa-Majnu, Shrin-o-Khusrav and Harun-ur-Rashid.

Lt. Col. Torrens visits Kashmir in 1860s calls Shawl traders the "merchant princes of Kashmir". They were selling shawls at 500 percent profit on its original cost of production in Kashmir. Mukhtar Shah tells John Ireland, an American visitor to Kashmir, if labor was as cheap in France as Kashmir, they could make shawls as well as he did. 

191. Maharaja Ranbir Singh (1857-1885 A.D.)

British Residency established in Srinagar in 1855. Ranbir Singh helped the British during the mutiny of 1857.

In 1847, weavers protest their living conditions. They are living hand-to-mouth. They threated mass migration to Punjab. Gulab Singh accepts that conditions are bad but suggests that they can change employer for better wages. In ground nothing changes. Amritsar becomes new centre of Shawl trade. In 1865, weavers protest high cost of Shali and high taxes on Shawl manufacture. Governor Kripa Ram (of Jammu, famous for his leisurely lifestyle in Kashmir) ignores the demand. Shawl Baafs (Shawl industry workers) revolt in April 1865 against Dagh-Shawl department headed by Pandit Raj Kak Dhar. They take out effigy of Raj Kak Dhar and claim Dhar is dead. Dhar panics. Infantry called in, about 28 die and leaders put in prison. The department is later abolished in 1890 when the trade has almost collapsed. 

Dogri language receives great impetus under him. The Dharmath Trust brought into being. Attempts on the life of Jawahir Singh of Punch and Miyan Hethu of Rajanri. Gilgit reconquered. Setback to Shawl trade of Kashmir due to Franco-Prussian war of 1870 between French empire and German states. Severe famine in 1877. Advent of church Missionary society. Clash between Shias and Sunnis in 1872 at Zadibal.  Ranbir's Durbar on Akbar's model.

Diwan Kirpa ram writes Gulzar-i-Kashmir (1870) and Gulabnama. Pir Hassan Shah writes Tarikh-i-Kashmir. He ends his work on death of Shawl trade. He calls it "God's punishment" for the dissolute lifestyle of the wealthy shawl manufacturers.

Abdul Wahhab Pare writes Divan-i-Wahhab, Darveshi, Sailab Nama and Kar-i-Patwar.

Raghunatha and Shiv temples at Jammu.

Collection of manuscripts (Georg Bühler ) and their translations.

Alexander II of Russia sells Alaska to United States in 1867 for $7.2 million, or 2 cents per acre.

In 1888, with shawl trade in decline, the shawl merchants like Hajji Mukhtar Shah Ashai (d.1892, in business since 1811), who are also patron donors of various Muslim shrines in Valley, assert their dominance of these institutions.

 They get Maharaja to pass a law that Mirwaiz Kashmir Yahya Shah cannot preach in a shrine where 100 people oppose him. Thus Mirwaiz is forbidden from preaching at Khanwah-i-Maulla. 

192. Maharaja Pratap Singh (1885-1925 A.D.)

In 1890, Germany chose to support Austria against Russia over competing influence in the Balkans, setting stage for World War 1.

Powers of the Maharaja withdrawn by British in 1889. Severe Cholera in 1888, 1892, 1900-02, 1906-07 and 1910. Appointment of Lawrence for land settlement of the valley in 1887. Persian as court language replaced by Urdu. First college opened in 1905. Prince of Wales College, Jammu, opened in 1907. railway extended to the state. Power house set up in 1907-08. Conquest of Hunza Nagar and Chitral.

State Council in 1891 first recognised inhabitants of state as "State Subject" and their right to jobs. Maharaja would talk about it in court. But, nothing was formalised. This triggered the pandit agitation about jobs. It was voiced first in writing in 1894 by Saligram Kaul, in Sialkot. Saligram was brother of Hargogal Kaul, the man who started Sanatan Dharam Sabha. Hargogal Kaul was a man born and brought up in Punjab in a KP family that had settled there in earlier times of persecution. Hargogal arrived in state around 1876. He was quickly branded a British agent and rumor started that he had drowned some KMs in a boat. He was a fierce critic of the Maharaja and was even banished from the state for some years. He was charged by Wahabi leader Yahya Shah of hurting religious sentiments of muslims in around 1898. 

State subject laws come up in 1917.

Kashmiri poetry of Krishna Das, Maqbool Shah Kralawari, Abdul Ahad Nazim and Rasul Mir Shabadi.

193. Maharaja Hari Singh (1925-1947 A.D.)

In 1907, KM representatives while asking for education funds for Islamia school were writing to Maharaja thanking him for protecting them from Arya Samajis , the evil brains behind Congress whose main agenda is Hindustan for Hindus. "Kashmir for Kashmiris" movement started in 1920s. Slogan was coined by Shankerlal Koul, product of Biscoe School. 

Muslim revolt comes into forefront in 1931. In 1932, Muslim conference is born. National Conference comes out of Muslim Conference in 1939 with Congress support from mainland. Pandit like Jia Lal Kilam, Kashyap Bandhu and Prem Nath Bazaz join. Major communist/socialist influence in the movement. Subsequently 'Quit Kashmir' modeled on 'Quit India' in 1946. Kashmir accedes to the dominion of India in 1947. Tribal invasion takes place in the October of 1947. Popular rule established. Hereditary rulership abolished as a result of the convening of the Constituent Assembly in 1951. Yuvraj Karan Singh, son of Hari Singh elected first head of the state under the new Constitution of Kashmir.

Palaces at Srinagar and Jammu. Boulevard. Hospitals at Srinagar and Jammu.
Kashmiri Poetry of Ghulam Ahmad Mahjur, Abdul Ahad Azad and Master Zinda Kaul.



  1. Thanks. May I know the source of your information that Gurmukhi the script developed by successor of Guru Nanak was evolved from Sharda.
    Best wishes

    1. Proto Gurmukhi predates time of Guru Angad. However, Guru Angad did standardise what is now know as Gurmukhi. Sharada belongs to parent family of Takri, Landa and Ardhanagari, each evolving from Sharada at various stages in the evolution of Sharada. So, in effect Sharada can be considered parent family of Gurmukhi considering that Gurmukhi is parts all those scripts.

  2. Commendable, to put whole of the history at one place.

  3. every Hindu or other people should read
    the Hindu History

  4. Excellent Collection But Mainly Should Have Maintained To Mention How Did it Got its Name Qashh Mieyrr First Since Ancient Orthodox Regine

  5. Hello, and thank you for making available your research. Would you kindly help me to find the sources of your information on one of the governors of # 186 Mahmud Shah Shuja-ul-Mulk (1801-1819 A.D.), named Wazir Shah Muhammad? His full name? his father's name? names of his children? The province or provinces which he governed? and the dates? Or any other sources of information on him? Thank you in advance for your help, -AJH

    1. All I can say right now is that he was governor of Kashmir from 1808-13.

  6. You have really done hard work. I appreciate your work.

  7. An remarkable compilation.
    A bit of typographic correction of dates is required in para 186, e.g.,1933, 1985.
    Could you please throw some light on the Kashmiri Pandits in positions of power during such history.
    - Rajin Zutshi

    1. thanks for pointing out. Have fixed the typos. This is an evolving post. I keep updating it with fresh data. I do plan to add more info. about KPs in particular eras.

  8. Appreciate your hardwork. Awesome stuff.


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